Prevalence of urban malaria and assocated factors in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT Malaria has become one of the major health problems currently facing the urban communities. The rapid increase in urbanization, rural-urban migration and climatic changes are among the main factors contributing for the rise of malaria in urban areas. To our knowledge, there has been no malaria prevalence study so far conducted in Gondar Town.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria infection and its associated risk factors in Gondar Town.
A community-based survey was conducted in three randomly selected malarious Kebeles of Gondar Town during November-December 2004. Blood films were collected from a finger-prick of 734 members of the selected households for microscopic examination of malaria parasites.
Among 734 examined blood films, 39 (5.3%) were positive for malaria infection, of which 29 (74.4%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum and 10 (25.6%) due to P. vivax. Seven (18%) malaria infections were reported from children under the age of five years, indicating the endemicity of malaria to the study area. Age-specific rates show that higher malaria prevalence rate was found among under-five children (7.2%) and 15-19 year-old age group (7.3%). Proximity to mosquito breeding sites was found to be the main risk factor for malaria infection (OR = 2.4, 95% CI. 1.2-5.1).
The prevalence of malaria in Gondar Town was found to be high. The prevalence was strongly associated with proximity of residence to potential mosquito breeding sites. The occurrence of the disease among under-five children would indicate that malaria is indigenous to the area. Use of personal protection methods such as insecticide treated mosquito nets should be scaled up, and malaria control interventions should target residents who are at a closer proximity to mosquito breeding sites.
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ABSTRACT: In 2005, the Ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. The programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. Global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. However, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. The objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland areas of south-central Ethiopia, designated as the Butajira area. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 750 households were selected. All consenting family members were examined for malaria parasites in thick and thin blood smears. The assessment was repeated six times for two years (October 2008 to June 2010). In total, 19,207 persons were examined in the six surveys. From those tested, 178 slides were positive for malaria, of which 154 (86.5%) were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 22 (12.4%) for Plasmodium falciparum; the remaining two (1.1%) showed mixed infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The incidence of malaria was higher after the main rainy season, both in lower lying and in highland areas. The incidence in the highlands was low and similar for all age groups, whereas in the lowlands, malaria occurred mostly in those of one to nine years of age. This study documented a low prevalence of malaria that varied with season and altitudinal zone in a highland-fringe area of Ethiopia. Most of the malaria infections were attributable to Plasmodium vivax.Malaria Journal 03/2012; 11:84. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed malaria infection in relation to age, altitude, rainfall, socio-economic factors and coverage of control measures in a representative sample of 11437 people in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions of Ethiopia in December 2006-January 2007. Surveys were conducted in 224 randomly selected clusters of 25 households (overall sample of 27884 people in 5708 households). In 11538 blood slides examined from alternate households (83% of those eligible), malaria prevalence in people of all ages was 4.1% (95% CI 3.4-4.9), with 56.5% of infections being Plasmodium falciparum. At least one mosquito net or one long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) was present in 37.0% (95% CI 31.1-43.3) and 19.6% (95% CI 15.5-24.5) of households, respectively. In multivariate analysis (n=11437; 82% of those eligible), significant protective factors were: number of LLINs per household (odds ratio [OR] (per additional net)=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.89), living at higher altitude (OR (per 100 m)=0.95; 95% CI 0.90-1.00) and household wealth (OR (per unit increase in asset index)=0.79; 95% CI 0.66-0.94). Malaria prevalence was positively associated with peak monthly rainfall in the year before the survey (OR (per additional 10 mm rain)=1.10; 95% CI 1.03-1.18). People living above 2000 m and people of all ages are still at significant risk of malaria infection.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 02/2009; 103(12):1211-20. · 1.82 Impact Factor