Pre-exposure rabies vaccination using purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine intradermally is immunogenic and safe.
ABSTRACT To demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of intradermal rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis with purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in schoolchildren age 5 to 8 years in Thailand.
In a randomized, open-label, phase II clinical trial, 2 or 3 intradermal doses of 0.1 mL PCECV (Rabipur) were administered to 703 schoolchildren on days 0 and 28 or on days 0, 7, and 28. In 206 children, 2 simulated post-exposure booster doses were given 1 year after the primary vaccination series. Rabies virus- neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were determined by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.
In school-age children in Thailand, a pre-exposure immunization regimen of 3 intradermal doses of PCECV produced adequate immune responses. After primary vaccination, all subjects developed RVNA titers > or =0.5 IU/mL and demonstrated a rapid increase in RVNA titer after 2 simulated post-exposure booster immunizations 1 year after the primary vaccination series. No serious adverse drug reactions occurred.
Rabies pre-exposure immunization with PCECV is safe and immunogenic, and its implementation could save the lives of many children in rabies-endemic areas.
- SourceAvailable from: Ramesh MasthiAsia pacific journal of tropical diseases. 01/2014; 3(1):930-4.
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ABSTRACT: Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis which can be effectively prevented by prophylactic measures. The currently available cell culture vaccines used for rabies prophylaxis are expensive for use by the standard intramuscular route of administration. In the last 3 decades, intradermal (ID) routes of vaccination using lesser amounts of vaccine as compared to that used for standard intramuscular vaccination have been used extensively in some Asian countries which has reduced the economic burden of rabies prophylaxis and also contributed in achieving a decline in the incidence of human rabies. ID vaccination is based on sound immunological principles and has been found to be safe and immunogenic. New short duration regimens to further economize the cost and enhance patient compliance, and novel non-invasive devices for ID vaccine delivery are being evaluated. Considering the success of ID rabies vaccination in Asian countries, its implementation in rabies endemic African countries should be encouraged.Expert Review of Vaccines 03/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Rabies virus is the main etiologic agent of the widespread neurological disease rabies. Recently, the China rabies virus vaccine strain CTN-1 adapted to chicken embryo cells, which has been designated as CTNCEC25, was obtained and demonstrated to have high immunogenicity. However, the full genome sequence of CTNCEC25 and its phylogenetic relationship with other rabies virus street and vaccine strains have not been characterized. Results The complete genome of CTNCEC25 was sequenced and analyzed. The length of CTNCEC25 genome is 11,924 nucleotides (nt), comprising a 3[prime] leader sequence of 59 nt, nucleoprotein (N) gene of 1,425 nt, phosphoprotein (P) gene of 989 nt, matrix protein (M) gene of 803 nt, glycoprotein (G) gene of 2,067 nt, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (L) of 6,474 nt and a 5[prime] trailer region of 71 nt. A comparison of the entire genomes of CTN-1 and CTNCEC25 identified 16 nt substitutions and 1 deletion, resulting in 8 amino acid (aa) changes in the five structural proteins with one in L (aa 1602), two in M (aa 99 and 191) and six in mature G (aa 147, 333, 389, 421 and 485). The percentage homology of the CTNCEC25 genomic sequence with other fully sequenced rabies virus strains ranged from 81.4% to 99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CTNCEC25 was more closely related with those recently isolated China street strains than other vaccine strains. Virus growth analysis showed that CTNCEC25 achieved high rate of propagation in cultured cells. Conclusions In this study, the complete genome of CTNCEC25 was sequenced and characterized. Our results showed that CTNCEC25 was more closely related to wild street strains circulating in China than other vaccine strains. Sequence analysis showed that the G protein ectodomain amino acid sequence identity between CTNCEC25 and other rabies virus strains was at least 90% identical. Furthermore, CTNCEC25 achieved high virus titers in cultured cells. Given that CTNCEC25 has high immunogenicity and induced strong protective immune response in animals, these results collectively demonstrated that CTNCEC25 is an ideal vaccine strain candidate for producing human vaccine with high quality and safety in China.Virology Journal 10/2014; 2014(11):176. · 2.09 Impact Factor