Effects of neutral salts and alcohols on the activity of Streptomyces caespitosus neutral protease

Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
Journal of Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.58). 10/2007; 142(3):317-24. DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvm134
Source: PubMed


Streptomyces caespitosus neutral protease (ScNP) is one of the smallest metalloproteinase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa. Effects of solvent composition on ScNP activity were examined using a peptide substrate. The k(cat)/K(m) values of ScNP exhibited bell-shaped pH-dependence with the optimal pH of 6.4-7.0 and the pK(a) values of 5.0 +/- 0.1 and 8.3 +/- 0.1. ScNP activity increased in an exponential fashion with increasing [NaCl]. The relative k(cat)/K(m) value at 3.6 M NaCl to that at 0 M NaCl was 3.7, and the degree of the activation at x M NaCl was expressed as 1.2 (x) (x < 2.0) and 1.4(x) (x > 2.0). On the other hand, ScNP activity decreased with increasing concentrations of LiCl, KCl, NaBr, LiBr, KBr and NaClO(4). Alcohols inhibited ScNP activity with the IC(50) values, the concentration required for decreasing the activity at 50% of the maximum, of 0.77-6.54 M. The order of the inhibitory potency was 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol > 2-methyl-2-propanol, 2-butanol, 1-propanol > 2-propanol > ethanol > methanol. The activities recovered completely by the dilution of alcohols, suggesting that the ScNP inhibition by alcohols is reversible. These characteristics of ScNP are compared with those of human matrix metalloproteinase 7 and thermolysin.

0 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thermolysin is remarkably activated and stabilized by neutral salts, and surface charges are suggested important in its activity and stability. The effects of introducing negative charge into the molecular surface on its activity and stability are described. Seven serine residues were selected, and each of them was changed for aspartate by site-directed mutagenesis in a thermolysin mutant. In the hydrolysis of N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-glycyl-l-leucine amide, the k(cat)/K(m) values of all mutants were almost similar to that of the wild-type enzyme (WT). However, those of six out of seven mutants were enhanced 17-19 times with 4 M NaCl, being slightly higher than WT. The remaining casein-hydrolyzing activities of the S53D and S65D mutants (Ser53 and Ser65 are replaced with Asp, respectively) after 30-min incubation with 10 mM CaCl(2) at 85 degrees C were 78 and 63%, being higher than those of WT (51%) and the other mutants (35-53%). S53D was stabilized with increase in the enthalpy change of activation for thermal inactivation while S65D was with decrease in the entropy change of activation. The stability of WT was enhanced by CaCl(2) and reached the level of S53D and S65D at 100 mM, suggesting that S53D and S65D might be stabilized by reinforcement of the Ca(2+)-binding structures.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2008; 1784(3):481-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbapap.2007.12.004 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The active site of thermolysin is composed of one zinc ion and five polypeptide regions [N-terminal sheet (Asn112-Trp115), alpha-helix 1 (Val139-Thr149), C-terminal loop 1 (Asp150-Gly162), alpha-helix 2 (Ala163-Val176) and C-terminal loop 2 (Gln225-Ser234)]. To explore their catalytic roles, we introduced single amino-acid substitutions into these regions by site-directed mutagenesis and examined their effects on the activity and stability. Seventy variants, in which one of the twelve residues (Ala113, Phe114, Trp115, Asp150, Tyr157, Gly162, Ile168, Ser169, Asp170, Asn227, Val230 and Ser234) was replaced, were produced in Escherichia coli. The hydrolytic activities of thermolysin for N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-Gly-l-Leu amide (FAGLA) and casein revealed that the N-terminal sheet and alpha-helix 2 were critical in catalysis and the C-terminal loops 1 and 2 were in substrate recognition. Twelve variants were active for both substrates. In the hydrolysis of FAGLA and N-carbobenzoxy-L-Asp-L-Phe methyl ester, the k(cat)/K(m) values of the D150E (in which Asp150 is replaced with Glu) and I168A variants were 2-3 times higher than those of the wild-type (WT) enzyme. Thermal inactivation of thermolysin at 80 degrees C was greatly suppressed with the D150H, D150W, I168A, I168H, N227A, N227H and S234A. The evidence might provide the insights into the activation and stabilization of thermolysin.
    Journal of Biochemistry 11/2008; 145(1):103-13. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvn140 · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) exhibits a broad bell-shaped pH-dependence with the acidic and alkaline pK(e) (pK(e1) and pK(e2)) values of about 4 and 10. Its active-site tyrosyl residue, Tyr219, is conserved in all other MMPs, and thus has been thought for the ionizable group responsible for pK(e2). In this study, we examined the mutational effects of Tyr219 on enzyme activity. Five Tyr219 variants, Y219F (Tyr219 is replaced with Phe), Y219D, Y219A, Y219C and Y219S, were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. In the hydrolysis of (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl-l-Pro-l-Leu-Gly-l-Leu-[N(3)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropionyl]-l-Ala-l-Arg-NH(2), all five variants retained the activity, indicating that Tyr219 is not the ionizable group responsible for pK(e2). Unexpectedly, all five variants exhibited narrower pH-dependence than the wild-type MMP-7, with the pK(e1) and pK(e2) values in the range of 5.2-5.4 and 8.6-9.4, respectively. Such pH-dependence shifts were not observed in other active-site tyrosyl-residue variants, Y193F and Y216F. These results suggest that Tyr219 is not critical for catalytic activity, but is involved in the broad pH-dependence of the activity.
    Journal of Biochemistry 05/2011; 150(2):183-8. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvr050 · 2.58 Impact Factor
Show more