Meta-analysis of procalcitonin for sepsis detection.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 19.45). 09/2007; 7(8):498-9; author reply 502-3. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70163-9
Source: PubMed


Available from: Beat Müller, Jan 18, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: A decrease in plasma lipids occurs during severe sepsis and has prognostic implications in critical illness. Whether lipids have prognostic implications or could help to differentiate community-acquired pneumonia from other lower respiratory tract infections remains unknown. We analysed data from patients with lower respiratory tract infections enrolled in four prospective trials. We studied the time courses of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) and compared them with the underlying diagnosis and medical outcomes. Of 572 patients included, 372 had community-acquired pneumonia and 200 acute and exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchitis. We found significantly lower concentrations of TC, LDL-C and HDL-C in all patients on admission as compared to hospital discharge, particularly in community-acquired pneumonia. A multivariate logistic regression analysis including HDL-C, CRP, age and diabetes showed that HDL-C (OR: 0.18 [95%CI 0.11-0.3]) and CRP (OR: 1.01 [95%CI 1.01-1.02]) were independent predictors of community-acquired pneumonia. TC levels were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors (3.26 mmol/L [95%CI 2.58-3.96] vs 3.78 mmol/L [95%CI 3.01-4.65]). The prognostic accuracy, defined as the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of TC to predict mortality, was 0.63 (95%CI 0.53-0.72) in all patients and increased to 0.94 (95%CI 0.86-1.00) in patients with bacteraemic community-acquired pneumonia. In conclusion, low lipid levels, particularly low HDL-C, pointed to bacterial infection and low TC was predictive of adverse outcomes in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Reflecting the severity of disease, plasma lipid levels may be a complementary tool in the diagnostic and prognostic workup of patients with lower respiratory tract infections.
    Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 04/2009; 139(11-12):166-72. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and drivers of antibiotic use and in-hospital days. A reduction of antibiotic use potentially lowers the risk of antibiotic resistance. An early and adequate risk assessment combining medical, biopsychosocial and functional risk scores has the potential to optimize site-of-care decisions and thus allocation of limited health-care resources. The aim of this factorial study is twofold: first, for Intervention A, it investigates antibiotic exposure of patients treated with a protocol based on the type of UTI, procalcitonin (PCT) and pyuria. Second, for Intervention B, it investigates the usefulness of the prognostic biomarker proadrenomedullin (ProADM) integrated into an interdisciplinary assessment bundle for site-of-care decisions.Methods and design: This randomized controlled open-label trial has a factorial design (2 x 2). Randomization of patients will be based on a pre-specified computer-generated randomization list and independent for the two interventions. Adults with UTI presenting to the emergency department (ED) will be screened and enrolled after providing informed consent.For our first Intervention (A), we developed a protocol based on previous observational research to recommend initiation and duration of antibiotic use based on the clinical presentation of UTI, pyuria and PCT levels. For our second intervention (B), an algorithm was developed to support site-of care decisions based on the prognostic marker ProADM and distinct nursing factors on days 1 and 3. Both interventions will be compared with a control group conforming to the guidelines.The primary endpoints for the two interventions will be: (A) overall exposure to antibiotics and (B) length of physician-led hospitalization within a follow-up of 30 days. Endpoints are assessed at discharge from hospital, and 30 and 90 days after admission. We plan to screen 300 patients and enroll 250 for an anticipated estimated loss of follow-up of 20%. This will provide adequate power for the two interventions. DISCUSSION: This trial investigates two strategies for improved individualized medical care in patients with UTI. The minimally effective duration of antibiotic therapy is not known for UTIs, which is important for reducing the selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, costs and drug-related side effects. Triage decisions must be improved to reflect the true medical, biopsychosocial and functional risks in order to allocate patients to the most appropriate care setting and reduce hospital-acquired disability.Trial registration: ISRCTN13663741.
    Trials 03/2013; 14(1):84. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-84 · 2.12 Impact Factor