Basic mechanisms of high-risk human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis: roles of E6 and E7 proteins.

Virology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.
Cancer Science (Impact Factor: 3.48). 11/2007; 98(10):1505-11. DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2007.00546.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are believed to be the primary causal agents for development of pre-neoplastic and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix, and high-risk types such as type 16 and 18 are associated with more than 90% of all cervical carcinomas. The E6 and E7 genes of HPV are thought to play causative roles, since E6 promotes the degradation of p53 through its interaction with E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, whereas E7 binds to the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and disrupts its complex formation with E2F transcription factors. Although prophylactic vaccines have become available, it is still necessary to clarify the mechanisms of HPV-induced carcinogenesis because of the widespread nature of HPV infection. Approximately 493,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed each year with approximately 274,000 mortalities due to invasive cervical cancer. In the present article, the mechanisms of HPV16 E6- and E7-induced multistep carcinogenesis and recently identified functions of these onco-proteins are reviewed.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the well-established etiological factor of cervical cancer. E6 and E7 oncoproteins expressed by HPV are known to inactivate tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb, respectively. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a diterpenoid naphthoquinone found in the traditional Chinese medicine Danshen (Salvia sp). Tan IIA has been shown to possess anti-tumor activity against several cancer types. In this study we show that Tan IIA potently inhibited proliferation of the human cervical cancer cells CaSki, SiHa, HeLa and C33a. Mechanistically in HPV positive CaSki cells, Tan IIA was found to i) downregulate expression of HPV E6 and E7 genes and modulate associated proteins E6AP and E2F1, ii) cause S phase cell cycle arrest, iii) induce accumulation of p53 and alter expression of p53-dependent targets, iv) modulate pRb and related proteins, and v) cause p53-mediated apoptosis by moderating Bcl2, Bax, caspase-3, and PARP cleavage expressions. In vivo, Tan IIA resulted in over 66% reduction in tumor volume of cervical cancer xenograft in athymic nude mice. Tan IIA treated tumor tissues had lower expression of proliferation marker PCNA and changes in apoptosis targets were in agreement with in vitro studies, further confirming reduced proliferation and involvement of multiple targets behind anti-cancer effects. This is the first demonstration of Tan IIA to possess significant anti-viral activity by repressing of HPV oncogenes leading to inhibition of cervical cancer. Together, our data suggest that Tan IIA can be exploited as a potent therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of cervical and other HPV-related cancers.
    Cancer letters. 10/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Standard treatment of cervical cancer (CC) consists of surgery in the early stages and of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease. Metastatic CC has a poor prognosis and is usually treated with palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. Current chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with significant adverse effects and only limited activity, making identification of active and tolerable novel targeted agents a high priority. Angiogenesis is a complex process that plays a crucial role in the development of many types of cancer. The dominant role of angiogenesis in CC seems to be directly related to human papillomavirus-related inhibition of p53 and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Both of these mechanisms are able to increase expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Activation of VEGF promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration, favoring formation of new blood vessels and increasing permeability of existing blood vessels. Since bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding to all isoforms of VEGF, has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in gynecologic cancer, some recent clinical research has explored the possibility of using novel therapies directed toward inhibition of angiogenesis in CC too. Here we review the main results from studies concerning the use of antiangiogenic drugs that are being investigated for the treatment of CC.
    OncoTargets and Therapy 12/2014; 7:2237–2248. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. Major advances but still insufficient achievements in the treatment of locally advanced and high-risk early stage patients have occurred in the last decade with the incorporation of concurrent cisplatin with radiation and, lately, gemcitabine added to cisplatin chemoradiation. Despite a number of clinical studies incorporating molecular-targeted therapy as radiosensitizers being in progress, so far, only antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab added to cisplatin chemoradiation has demonstrated safety and shown encouraging results in a Phase II study. In advanced disease, cisplatin doublets do not have a great impact on the natural history of the disease with median survival rates not exceeding 13 months. The first Phase III study of bevacizumab, added to cisplatin or a non-cisplatin-containing doublet, showed significant increase in both overall survival and progression-free survival. Further studies are needed before bevacizumab plus chemotherapy can be considered the standard of care for advanced disease. Characterization of the mutational landscape of cervical cancer has already been initiated, indicating that, for now, few of these targetable alterations match with available agents. Progress in both the mutational landscape knowledge and developments of novel targeted therapies may result in more effective and individualized treatments for cervical cancer. The potential efficacy of knocking down the key alterations in cervical cancer - E6 and E7 human papillomavirus oncoproteins - must not be overlooked.
    International Journal of Women's Health 01/2014; 6:1023-31.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 1, 2014