Clevudine is highly efficacious in hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B with durable off-therapy viral suppression.
ABSTRACT Clevudine is a pyrimidine analog with potent and sustained antiviral activity against HBV. In the present study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of clevudine 30 mg daily for 24 weeks and assessed the durability of antiviral response for 24 weeks after cessation of dosing in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (e-CHB). We randomized a total of 86 patients (3:1) to receive clevudine 30 mg (n = 63) or placebo (n = 23) daily for 24 weeks. We followed patients for an additional 24 weeks after withdrawal of treatment. The median changes in HBV DNA from baseline were -4.25 and -0.48 log(10) copies/mL at week 24 in the clevudine and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Viral suppression in the clevudine group was sustained after withdrawal of therapy, with 3.11 log(10) reduction at week 48. At week 24 and week 48, 92.1% and 16.4% of patients in the clevudine group had undetectable serum HBV DNA levels by Amplicor PCR assay (<300 copies/mL). The proportion of patients who achieved ALT normalization was 74.6% and 33.3% in the clevudine and placebo groups at week 24, respectively (P = 0.0006). ALT normalization in the clevudine group was well-maintained during the post-treatment follow-up period. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the 2 groups. No resistance to clevudine was detected during treatment. CONCLUSION: A 24-week clevudine therapy was well-tolerated and showed potent and sustained antiviral effect without evidence of viral resistance in e-CHB patients. However, treatment for longer than 24 weeks would be needed to achieve durable remission.
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ABSTRACT: Clevudine 30 mg showed potent antiviral activity with a marked post-treatment antiviral effect. However, long-term treatment with clevudine monotherapy induced resistance and myopathy in some cases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of the combination of clevudine 20 mg and adefovir compared to clevudine monotherapy. Seventy-four patients were randomized to either a combination of clevudine 20 mg and adefovir or clevudine 20 or 30 mg and were treated for 2 years. The viral kinetics for 24 weeks, virological response [VR; hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA less than 300 copies/ml], and the biochemical response [BR; normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] were assessed. There was no difference in baseline characteristics among the three groups. Viral kinetics study showed no statistically significant difference among them during 24 weeks. The combination group showed 95 % virological response with a statistically significant difference compared to the clevudine 30 mg (67 %) and 20 mg (71 %) groups (p = 0.0376). Biochemical response rates were similar in all groups (78-94 %). No resistance was reported in the combination group, while 20 % of patients treated with clevudine 30 mg or 20 mg reported resistance during 2 years. Muscle-related symptoms such as myalgia (1 in clevudine 30 mg, 1 in the combination group) and muscle weakness (1 in clevudine 30 mg, 2 in clevudine 20 mg) were reported in five patients (7 %); of these, three patients discontinued the study. We concluded that the combination of clevudine 20 mg and adefovir produced a potent antiviral response together with a good resistance profile compared to clevudine monotherapy at 96 weeks in this pilot study.Hepatology International 07/2014; 8(3):375-381. DOI:10.1007/s12072-014-9537-5 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There had been remarkable development in nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and evolution in treatment strategies in last 15 years. Currently, there are five NAs available for chronic hepatitis B treatment, namely lamivudine, telbivudine and entecavir (nucleoside analogues), adefovir dipivoxil and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (nucleotide analogues). The advantages of relatively infrequent side effects and easy administration per oral make NAs popular treatment options. The major drawback of earlier generation NAs is the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Current international guidelines recommend the use of more potent agents with high genetic barriers to resistance including entecavir and tenofovir as first line chronic hepatitis B treatment. However, there is no consensus regarding the subsequent treatment regimens in patients with suboptimal responses to NAs. De novo combination therapy of two NAs, response-guided therapy and roadmap concept in NAs with subsequent switch or add-on therapy can also potentially improve treatment efficacy and avoid resistance.Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 04/2014; DOI:10.1586/17474124.2014.909724 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The durability of off-treatment virologic responses has not been fully elucidated in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have previously achieved complete virologic suppression with nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy. This study aimed to assess off-treatment virologic relapse rates and to characterize the outcomes of subsequent re-treatment in CHB patients who have discontinued oral NA following complete virologic suppression.BMC Infectious Diseases 08/2014; 14(1):439. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-439 · 2.56 Impact Factor