Garlic compounds generate reactive oxygen species leading to activation of stress kinases and cysteine proteases for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells.
ABSTRACT Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) provide significant protection against carcinogenesis.
Dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of the garlic compounds (DAS, DADS, and DATS) were tested in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Wright staining and ApopTag assay confirmed induction of apoptosis. Measurements showed that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)] promoted apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that increased expression and activities of the stress kinases and cysteine proteases caused apoptosis. Use of JC-1 showed changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi(m)) for mediation of apoptosis. Use of the specific inhibitors monitored the activation of different kinases and proteases in apoptosis.
Treatment of glioblastoma cells with garlic compounds triggered production of ROS that induced apoptosis with the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and activation of the redox-sensitive JNK1 pathway. Pretreatment of cells with ascorbic acid attenuated ROS production, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and JNK1 activation. Pretreatment with JNK1 inhibitor I also significantly reduced cell death. Increases in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], expression of calreticulin, and activation of caspase-4 indicated involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in apoptosis. Other events in apoptosis included overexpression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and some BIRC proteins, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac into the cytosol, and activation of calpain, caspase-9, and caspase-3.
Garlic compounds induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells due toproduction of ROS, increase in ER stress, decrease in Delta psi(m), and activation of stress kinases and cysteine proteases.
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ABSTRACT: Two cysteine protease families (caspase and calpain) participate in apoptosis. Here we report that the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin is fragmented by caspase(s) to various extents during early apoptosis in two cell types. In anti-fas or staurosporine-treated Jurkat T-cells, the high-molecular-weight form (HMW) of calpastatin (apparent Mr 110 K) was extensively degraded to immunoreactive fragments of Mr 75 K and 30 K In apoptotic SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, HMW calpastatin was degraded to a major immunoreactive fragment of 75 K. In both cell types, fragmentation of HMW calpastatin was blocked by a caspase-specific inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Asp-CH2OC(O)-2,6-dichlorobenzene. In vitro translated HMW calpastatin was sensitive to proteolysis by recombinant caspase-1, -3, and -7. By contrast, in vitro translated LMW calpastatin (which lacks domains L and I) was cleaved into multiple fragments only by caspase-1 and was relatively resistant to caspase-3, -7, and other caspases tested. Consistently with that, purified erythroid LMW calpastatin was also highly susceptible to caspase-1 digestion. Recombinant human calpastatin spanning domain I through III (CAST(DI-III)) was found cleaved by caspase-1 at at least three sites, located in either the A or the C helix of domains I and III (ALDD137*L, LSSD203*F and ALAD404*S), while only a single site (ALDD137*L) was cleaved by caspase-3. These findings suggest that both HMW and LMW calpastatins are more vulnerable to caspase-1 than to caspase-3. Surprisingly, both erythroid LMW calpastatin and recombinant CAST(DI-III) fragmented by caspase-1 suffered only a less than twofold reduction of inhibitory activity toward calpain. We propose that the proteolysis of calpastatin in early apoptosis might have yet unidentified effects on the cross-talk between the two protease systems.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/1998; 356(2):187-96. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/2005; 579(1-2):115-24. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease or ischemia could arise from dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although caspase-12 has been implicated in ER stress-induced apoptosis and amyloid-beta (Abeta)-induced apoptosis in rodents, it is controversial whether similar mechanisms operate in humans. We found that human caspase-4, a member of caspase-1 subfamily that includes caspase-12, is localized to the ER membrane, and is cleaved when cells are treated with ER stress-inducing reagents, but not with other apoptotic reagents. Cleavage of caspase-4 is not affected by overexpression of Bcl-2, which prevents signal transduction on the mitochondria, suggesting that caspase-4 is primarily activated in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a reduction of caspase-4 expression by small interfering RNA decreases ER stress-induced apoptosis in some cell lines, but not other ER stress-independent apoptosis. Caspase-4 is also cleaved by administration of Abeta, and Abeta-induced apoptosis is reduced by small interfering RNAs to caspase-4. Thus, caspase-4 can function as an ER stress-specific caspase in humans, and may be involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2004; 165(3):347-56. · 10.82 Impact Factor