Garlic compounds generate reactive oxygen species leading to activation of stress kinases and cysteine proteases for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells.
ABSTRACT Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) provide significant protection against carcinogenesis.
Dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of the garlic compounds (DAS, DADS, and DATS) were tested in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Wright staining and ApopTag assay confirmed induction of apoptosis. Measurements showed that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)] promoted apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that increased expression and activities of the stress kinases and cysteine proteases caused apoptosis. Use of JC-1 showed changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi(m)) for mediation of apoptosis. Use of the specific inhibitors monitored the activation of different kinases and proteases in apoptosis.
Treatment of glioblastoma cells with garlic compounds triggered production of ROS that induced apoptosis with the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and activation of the redox-sensitive JNK1 pathway. Pretreatment of cells with ascorbic acid attenuated ROS production, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and JNK1 activation. Pretreatment with JNK1 inhibitor I also significantly reduced cell death. Increases in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], expression of calreticulin, and activation of caspase-4 indicated involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in apoptosis. Other events in apoptosis included overexpression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and some BIRC proteins, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac into the cytosol, and activation of calpain, caspase-9, and caspase-3.
Garlic compounds induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells due toproduction of ROS, increase in ER stress, decrease in Delta psi(m), and activation of stress kinases and cysteine proteases.
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ABSTRACT: Diallyl polysulfanes, such as diallyl trisulfide and diallyl tetrasulfide, are regarded as a group of potential chemopreventive compounds as they have been proven to be effective inhibitors of cancer cells. These agents have been implicated in signal transductions, including the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, regulation of cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis. Nonetheless, certain aspects of the diallyl polysulfane triggered inhibitory effects on cancer cells are still not clear. Understanding the targeted signaling pathways may help to develop new strategies to treat cancer and other diseases. This review is therefore aimed at addressing the targeting of specific intracellular signal transduction cascades by these diallyl polysulfanes in order to shed some light on possible mechanisms of action of these compounds.Natural product communications 03/2012; 7(3):401-8. · 1.24 Impact Factor
Article: Apoptosis induction of U937 human leukemia cells by diallyl trisulfide induces through generation of reactive oxygen species.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is one of the major constituents in garlic oil and has demonstrated various pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antithrombotic, and anticancer effects. However, the mechanisms of antiproliferative activity in leukemia cells are not fully understood. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DATS were investigated in human leukemia cells. Results of this study indicated that treatment with DATS resulted in significantly inhibited leukemia cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by induction of apoptosis. In U937 cells, DATS-induced apoptosis was correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1 protein levels, cleavage of Bid proteins, activation of caspases, and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. The data further demonstrated that DATS increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of ROS. In addition, administration of NAC resulted in significant inhibition of DATS-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of caspases. The present study reveals that the cytotoxicity caused by DATS is mediated by generation of ROS and subsequent activation of the ROS-dependent caspase pathway in U937 leukemia cells.Journal of Biomedical Science 05/2012; 19:50. · 2.01 Impact Factor
Article: Garlic in health and disease[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.Nutrition Research Reviews 05/2011; 24(01):60 - 71. · 4.84 Impact Factor