Health Benefits of Traditional Corn, Beans and Pumpkin; In Vitro Studies for Hyperglycemia and Hypertension Management

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA.
Journal of Medicinal Food (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2007; 10(2):266-75. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2006.234
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Levels of obesity-linked non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and hypertension are highest among indigenous communities in North America. This is linked to changes in dietary pattern towards high calorie foods such as sugar, refined grain flour, and sweetened beverages. Therefore, a return to traditional dietary patterns may help to reduce these disease problems because of better balance of calories and beneficial nutrients. Further protective non-nutrient phenolic phytochemicals against NIDDM and hypertension are potentially high in these foods but less understood. In this study antidiabetic- and antihypertension-relevant potentials of phenolic phytochemicals were confirmed in select important traditional plant foods of indigenous communities such as pumpkin, beans, and maize using in vitro enzyme assays for -glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. In vitro inhibitory activities of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and dietary management strategy for NIDDM through the control of glucose absorption and reduction of associated hypertension. These enzyme inhibitory activities were further compared to total soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the above-targeted plant foods. Pumpkin showed the best overall potential. Among the varieties of pumpkin extracts P5 (round orange) and P6 (spotted orange green) had high content of total phenolics and moderate antioxidant activity coupled to moderate to high alpha-glucosidase and ACE inhibitory activities. Therefore this phenolic antioxidant-enriched dietary strategy using specific traditional plant food combinations can generate a whole food profile that has the potential to reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathogenesis and also associated complications linked to cellular oxidation stress and hypertension.

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    • "Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) belongs to Cucurbitaceae family, is a very popul ar vegetable with high productivity and storability. Pumpkin has good nutritive benefits with balanced calori es and is a good source of carotenoids (Murkovic et al., 2002; Hidaka and Nakatsu, 1987; Kwon et al., 2007). Pumpkins are very versatile in their uses for cooking, can be stored for up to 6 months before being consumed and hence can play an important role in maintaining nutritional levels during long dry seasons (Mendlinger et al., 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted at Horticultural farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh during period from November 2013 to March 2014 to evaluate the performance of four pumpkin lines (L1 to L4). From the result of the current study maximum number of branches/plant (3.7), vine length (4.0 m), leaf area (946.6 cm2), single fruit weight (3.5 kg) and yield (26.5 kg/plant) was found from L2 but maximum number of fruit/plant was found from L4 (10.0). Early flowering (56.3 days) and maturity (93.7 days) was found from L2 while minimum sex ratio (male flower : female flower) from L4 (0.33).
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    • "Inhibition of α-glucosidase suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia by slowing down the catabolism of dietary carbohydrates [6, 10]. Recent studies showed that phenolic phytochemicals from botanical sources are natural inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [11–14] and thus can be potentially used to manage pre-diabetes progression to type 2 diabetes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Type 2 diabetes is a serious problem for developed countries. Prevention of prediabetes progression to type 2 diabetes with the use of natural products appears to a cost-effective solution. Previously we showed that enzymatically digested low molecular weight chitosan-oligosaccharide with molecular weight (MW) below 1,000 Da (GO2KA1) has potential for hyperglycemia management. Methods In this study we evaluated the effect of long-term supplementation of GO2KA1 on hyperglycemia using a db/db mice model. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of GO2KA1 on sucrase and glucoamylase activities and expression, using the same db/db mice model. Results After 42 days we observed that GO2KA1 supplementation reduced both the blood glucose level and HbA1c in a similar manner with a known anti-diabetic drug, acarbose. When the sucrase and glucoamylase activities of GO2KA1 and control mice were evaluated using enzymatic assay, we observed that GO2KA1 significantly inhibited sucrase in all 3 parts of the intestine, while glucoamylase activity was significantly reduced only in the middle and lower part. When the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complex expression on mRNA level was evaluated, we observed that GO2KA1 had minimal inhibitory effect on the upper part, more pronounced inhibitory effect on the middle part, while the highest inhibition was observed on the lower part. Our findings suggest that long-term GO2KA1 supplementation in db/db mice results to significant blood glucose and HbA1c reduction, to levels similar with those of acarbose. Furthermore, our findings confirm previous in vitro observations that GO2KA1 has inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes, namely sucrase, maltase and SI complex. Conclusions Results from this study provide a strong rationale for the use of GO2KA1 for type 2 diabetes prevention, via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Based on the findings of this animal trial, clinical trials will be designed and pursued.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2014; 14(1):272. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-272 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Disaccharides and oligosaccharides are broken down by the pancreatic α-amylase before the intestinal α-glucosidase enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of disaccharides into glucose which is then later absorbed into the systemic circulation. Inhibition of these enzymes would slow down the breakdown of starch into the simpler saccharides in the gastrointestinal tract, thus reducing the postprandial hyperglycemia [39,40]. α-Glucosidase inhibitors were also reveled to possess property to prevent dysfunction of β-cell insulin secretion in diabetic patients [41,42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2014; 14(1):155. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-155 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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