The Incidence of Gestational Hyperthyroidism and Postpartum Thyroiditis in Treated Patients with Graves' Disease

Kyōto Medical Center, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
Thyroid (Impact Factor: 4.49). 09/2007; 17(8):767-72. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2007.0003
Source: PubMed


Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most common thyroid diseases that cause hyperthyroidism. Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT) is nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism that occurs in women with a normal pregnancy. Postpartum transient thyroiditis (PTT) is a destructive thyroiditis induced by autoimmune mechanism in the postpartum period. Hyperthyroidism due to GD usually tends to improve during the course of gestation and exacerbate after delivery. When the patient with treated GD presents with thyrotoxicosis in the early pregnancy or in the postpartum period, differential diagnosis of exacerbation of GD with GTT or PTT is important because the latter disorders are fundamentally transient. To evaluate the incidence of GTT and PTT in a GD population, we investigated the thyroid functions, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy and for 1 year after delivery for 39 pregnancies in 34 women with GD. The incidence of GTT was 26% (10/39) of pregnancies. The peak value of hCG in the GTT group ([23.7 +/- 14.5] x 10(4) IU/mL, n = 9) was significantly higher than that in the non-GTT group ([13.3 +/- 4.7] x 10(4) IU/mL, n = 19). The incidence of PTT was 44% (17/39) of deliveries. The free triiodothyronine (FT(3))/free thyroxine (FT(4)) ratio of the exacerbation group of GD (3.1 +/- 1.0, n = 10) at the time of thyrotoxicosis after delivery was significantly higher than that of the PTT group (2.5 +/- 0.4, n = 16). The peak TRAb value of the exacerbation group of GD (72.5 +/- 121.7 IU/L, n = 10) at the time of thyrotoxicosis after delivery was also significantly higher than that of the PTT group (1.4 +/- 0.8 IU/L, n = 16). In conclusion, the high peak value of hCG is valuable for suspecting GTT, and the high FT(3)/FT(4) ratio is valuable for suspecting recurrence in the patients with GD. In both situations, changes of TRAb were also valuable in differentiating the recurrence of GD from GTT or PTT.

14 Reads
  • Source
    • "However, this is variable, and in a study of 184 women in Singapore, the prevalence of GTT during the first trimester was much higher at 11% [4]. GTT is also more common in patients with a history of Graves' disease prior to pregnancy, in whom the prevalence can be as high as 25% [5]. The prevalence of overt thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy ranged from 0.2 to 0.7% in one large U.S. population sample [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thyrotoxicosis presenting during pregnancy is a common clinical problem and can be challenging to differentiate between physiologic patterns of thyroid dysfunction during gestation and intrinsic hyperthyroidism. This review provides a summary of the differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, diagnostic options, potential adverse effects of maternal thyrotoxicosis to the fetus, and treatment recommendations for thyrotoxicosis arising in pregnancy.
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology 12/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcte.2014.07.008
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Estimates of the prevalence of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) vary widely because of variations in study design, populations, and duration of screening. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of PPTD among general and high-risk women, across geographical regions and in women with antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of the published literature (1975-2004), simultaneously accounting for sample size, study quality, percentage follow-up, and duration of screening. Data sources were MEDLINE and the bibliography of candidate studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Of 587 studies identified, 21 articles (8081 subjects) met the study criteria. The pooled prevalence of PPTD, defined as an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, for the general population was 8.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6%-10.0%). The risk ratios for the development of PPTD among women with TPOAbs compared to women without TPOAbs ranged between 4 and 97 with a pooled risk ratio of 5.7 (95% CI: 5.3-6.1). Global prevalence varied from 4.4% in Asia to 5.7% in the United States. Prevalence among women with type 1 diabetes mellitus was 19.6% (95% CI 19.5%-19.7%). PPTD occurs in 1 of 12 women in the general population worldwide, 1 of 17 women in the United States and is 5.7 times more likely to occur in women with TPOAbs. The high prevalence may warrant routine screening TPOAbs, but the benefits, cost, and risks related to subsequent therapy must be weighed.
    Thyroid 07/2006; 16(6):573-82. DOI:10.1089/thy.2006.16.573 · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Describe thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels in the U.S. population and their association with selected participant characteristics. Secondary analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from 4392 participants, reflecting 222 million individuals, during 1999-2002. Hypothyroidism prevalence (TSH > 4.5 mIU/L) in the general population was 3.7%, and hyperthyroidism prevalence (TSH < 0.1 mIU/L) was 0.5%. Among women of reproductive age (12-49 years), hypothyroidism prevalence was 3.1%. Individuals aged 80 years and older had five times greater odds for hypothyroidism compared to 12- to 49-year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, p = 0.0002). ORs were adjusted for sex, race, annual income, pregnancy status, and usage of thyroid-related medications (levothyroxine/thyroid, estrogen, androgen, lithium, and amiodarone). Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks had a lower risk for hypothyroidism (OR = 0.46, p = 0.04) and a higher risk for hyperthyroidism (OR = 3.18, p = 0.0005), while Mexican Americans had the same risk as non-Hispanic whites for hypothyroidism, but a higher risk for hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.98, p = 0.04). Among those taking levothyroxine or desiccated thyroid, the adjusted risk for either hypothyroidism (OR = 4.0, p = 0.0001) or hyperthyroidism (OR = 11.4, p = 4 x 10(-9)) was elevated. Associations with known factors such as age, race, and sex were confirmed using this data set. Understanding the prevalence of abnormal thyroid tests among reproductive-aged women informs decisions about screening in this population. The finding that individuals on thyroid hormone replacement medication often remain hypothyroid or become hyperthyroid underscores the importance of monitoring.
    Thyroid 12/2007; 17(12):1211-23. DOI:10.1089/thy.2006.0235 · 4.49 Impact Factor
Show more


14 Reads
Available from