Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most common thyroid diseases that cause hyperthyroidism. Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT) is nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism that occurs in women with a normal pregnancy. Postpartum transient thyroiditis (PTT) is a destructive thyroiditis induced by autoimmune mechanism in the postpartum period. Hyperthyroidism due to GD usually tends to improve during the course of gestation and exacerbate after delivery. When the patient with treated GD presents with thyrotoxicosis in the early pregnancy or in the postpartum period, differential diagnosis of exacerbation of GD with GTT or PTT is important because the latter disorders are fundamentally transient. To evaluate the incidence of GTT and PTT in a GD population, we investigated the thyroid functions, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy and for 1 year after delivery for 39 pregnancies in 34 women with GD. The incidence of GTT was 26% (10/39) of pregnancies. The peak value of hCG in the GTT group ([23.7 +/- 14.5] x 10(4) IU/mL, n = 9) was significantly higher than that in the non-GTT group ([13.3 +/- 4.7] x 10(4) IU/mL, n = 19). The incidence of PTT was 44% (17/39) of deliveries. The free triiodothyronine (FT(3))/free thyroxine (FT(4)) ratio of the exacerbation group of GD (3.1 +/- 1.0, n = 10) at the time of thyrotoxicosis after delivery was significantly higher than that of the PTT group (2.5 +/- 0.4, n = 16). The peak TRAb value of the exacerbation group of GD (72.5 +/- 121.7 IU/L, n = 10) at the time of thyrotoxicosis after delivery was also significantly higher than that of the PTT group (1.4 +/- 0.8 IU/L, n = 16). In conclusion, the high peak value of hCG is valuable for suspecting GTT, and the high FT(3)/FT(4) ratio is valuable for suspecting recurrence in the patients with GD. In both situations, changes of TRAb were also valuable in differentiating the recurrence of GD from GTT or PTT.
"However, this is variable, and in a study of 184 women in Singapore, the prevalence of GTT during the first trimester was much higher at 11% . GTT is also more common in patients with a history of Graves' disease prior to pregnancy, in whom the prevalence can be as high as 25% . The prevalence of overt thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy ranged from 0.2 to 0.7% in one large U.S. population sample . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyrotoxicosis presenting during pregnancy is a common clinical problem and can be challenging to differentiate between physiologic patterns of thyroid dysfunction during gestation and intrinsic hyperthyroidism. This review provides a summary of the differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, diagnostic options, potential adverse effects of maternal thyrotoxicosis to the fetus, and treatment recommendations for thyrotoxicosis arising in pregnancy.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology 12/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcte.2014.07.008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggravation of autoimmune diseases due to a rebound reaction to the pregnancy-associated immune changes is common during the post partum (PP) period. Previous studies demonstrated that up to 45% of women developing Graves' disease (GD) in the childbearing age had a PP onset of disease. Thus, the PP period was identified as a major risk factor for GD onset.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the PP period as a risk factor for GD occurrence.
The reproductive histories of 291 consecutive GD patients (165 patients in the childbearing age and 126 in the non-childbearing age) were retrospectively collected.
The rate of PP onset of GD in all patients with at least one successful pregnancy was 9.8 and 20.0% when only patients in the childbearing age were considered. In the entire cohort of GD women, independent of their age and parity status (i.e., the number of successful pregnancies), the rate of PP onset of GD was 7.2%. The relative frequencies of the rate of PP onset of GD were similar in relation with increasing parity. The rates of false negative (nulliparous) and false positive (parous non-childbearing+childbearing with a non-PP onset of GD) were estimated. The positive predictive value of the PP period for the onset of GD was less than 10%.
The results of the current study would not support a role for the PP period as a major risk factor for de novo occurrence of GD.
European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2008; 159(2):161-5. DOI:10.1530/EJE-08-0236 · 4.07 Impact Factor
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Mario Caggiano, Domenico Tafuri, Annamaria Colao, Francesco Orio
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.