Assessing allergen levels in peach and nectarine cultivars.
ABSTRACT The lipid transfer protein Pru p 3 has been identified as a major peach fruit allergen. However, the putative peach member of the Bet v 1 family, Pru p 1, has been neither identified nor characterized.
To determine the distribution and solubility properties of the main peach allergens and to quantify Pru p 3 and Pru p 1 levels in peach and nectarine cultivars.
Peach peel and pulp were extracted using different buffers, and extracts were analyzed by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunodetection using polyclonal antibodies against lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and Bet v 1 homologues. Pru p 3 was quantified in peach and nectarine cultivars using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. A similar method was developed to quantify Pru p 1.
A differential distribution between peel and pulp and different solubility properties were found for Pru p 3, Pru p 1, and peach profilin. Mean Pru p 3 levels were 132.86, 0.61, and 16.92 microg/g of fresh weight of peels, pulps, and whole fruits, respectively. The corresponding mean Pru p 1 levels were 0.62, 0.26, and 0.09 microg/g of fresh weight. Most US cultivars showed higher levels of both allergens than Spanish cultivars.
The different distribution and solubility properties of the main peach allergens can determine the quality of fruit extracts used as diagnostic tools. These differences, together with the natural variation of Pru p 3 and Pru p 1 levels among peach and nectarine cultivars, can be exploited to reduce peach allergenicity by means of industrial processing and plant breeding.
- SourceAvailable from: rheumatologynews.comFood and Chemical Toxicology - FOOD CHEM TOXICOL. 02/2008; 7(2):34-34.
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ABSTRACT: The principal allergens of Rosaceae (Prunoideae) fruit consist of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR proteins) which are essentially expressed in response to attacks on the plant by a phythopathogenic fungus. They include Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTP) of the PR-14 family, 1,3β-glucanases of the PR-2 family, and Thaumatin-Like Proteins (TLP) of the PR-5 family. Apple LTP (Mal d 3) is mainly located in the skin of apple, including the skin of several apple cultivars, i.e., Granny Smith, Golden delicious, and Fuji, which are particularly rich in LTP; the pulp of this fruit contains much less LTP. The LTP of the peach, Pru p 3, essentially concentrates in the downy hairs covering the fruit. As a practical consequence, peeling this fruit reduces considerably the amount of LTP to which sensitized individuals would be exposed. Conversely, cooking the fruit is of no interest because of the extreme resistance of LTP to thermal denaturation. In other Prunoideae fruits, e.g., plum (Pru d 3) and apricot (Pru ar 3), the LTP content of the skin and pulp of these fruits is very similar, so that peeling them does not reduce their allergenicity. Preliminary results suggest that fruit produced in biological farming have a higher LTP content compared to fruit produced in conventional farming. In Mediterranean countries, especially Spain and Italy, allergy to peach (Pru p 3) is often responsible for severe anaphylactic reactions.Revue Française d Allergologie 04/2009; 49(3):166-169. · 0.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle.Allergy 08/2013; · 6.00 Impact Factor