Clinical outcomes of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A prospective, multicenter, randomized study to analyze the effect of hydration and acetylcysteine

Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Cardiology, 68# Changle Road, 210006, Nanjing, China.
International journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 06/2008; 126(3):407-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.05.004
Source: PubMed


The potential role of hydration in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) still remains to be unclear.
Nine-hundred and thirty-six patients scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled into the present study, and divided into normal (serum creatinine<1.5 mg/dl) and abnormal (serum creatine> or =1.5 mg/dl) groups according to their baseline serum concentration of creatinine. Each group was further randomly divided into two subgroups: hydration and nonhydration. All patients in abnormal group took twice orally loading dose of 1200 mg acetylcysteine (ATLS) at 12 h before scheduled time for coronary angiogram and immediately after procedure. Creatinine concentration was remeasured at the time of admission (just before catheterization), every day for the following three days. The primary end point during 6-month follow-up included clinical driven revascularization (either PCI or CABG), death from all causes, and requiring emergency renal-replacement therapy.
The incidence of CIN was more commonly in abnormal group that in normal group (6.52% vs. 37.68%, p<0.001). Hydration had potentials in prevention of CIN only in patients with elevated baseline concentration of creatinine. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the following variables remained to be significant factors correlating with CIN: age> or =70 years (odds ration [OR] 5.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.94 to 13.07, p=0.0007), contrast volume> or =320 ml (OR 3.26, 95% CL 2.14 to 7.58, p=0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR 9.86, 95% CL 5.38 to 31.67, p<0.0001), and peripheral arterial disease (OR 11.25, 95% CL 5.12 to 43.19, p<0.0001). Patients with CIN in abnormal group had worse clinical outcomes, compared to patients with CIN in normal group.
Patients with CIN and preexisting renal insufficiency had worse clinical outcomes. Hydration with 0.45% sodium chloride alone had no potential effect on the occurrence of CIN in patients with normal renal function. Combination of hydration with ATLS could reduce the incidence of CIN in patients at high risk.

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    • "Hydration of high-risk patients for CIN before contrast administration is a universally accepted appropriate and safe measure to prevent CIN [8]. The effect of hydration on the reduction of developing CIN was shown in a few studies [10-15], but only two of these studies included a control group [11,15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common cause of acute renal failure in hospital patients. To prevent CIN, identification and hydration of high-risk patients is important. Prevention of CIN by hydration of high-risk patients was one of the themes to be implemented in the Dutch Hospital Patient Safety Program. This study investigates to what extent high-risk patients are identified and hydrated before contrast administration. Hospital-related and admission-related factors associated with the hydration of high-risk patients are identified. The adherence to the guideline concerning identification and hydration of high-risk patients for CIN was evaluated retrospectively in 4297 patient records between November 2011 and December 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between hospital-related and patient-related factors and hydration. The mean percentage patients with a known estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate before contrast administration was 96.4%. The mean percentage high-risk patients for CIN was 14.6%. The mean percentage high-risk patients hydrated before contrast administration was 68.5% and was constant over time. Differences between individual hospitals explained 19% of the variation in hydration. The estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate value and admission department were statistically significantly associated with the execution of hydration. The identification of high-risk patients was almost 100%, but the subsequent step in the prevention of CIN is less performed, as only two third of the high-risk patients were hydrated before contrast administration. Large variation between individual hospitals confirmed the difference in hospitals in correctly applying the guideline for preventing CIN.
    BMC Nephrology 01/2014; 15(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-2 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    • "They showed a reduction in the incidence of CIN with NAC compared with hydration alone. Up to now, several clinical studies [9,12-26] and meta-analyses [27-37] have been performed to assess the efficacy of NAC in the prevention of CIN, but the results are widely controversial even among the meta-analyses. In spite of heterogeneity in the available data on the efficacy of NAC, several studies have advised the use of NAC, especially in high-risk patients, because of its low cost, availability, and few side effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) constitute to be a high-risk population for the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), in which the incidence of CIN is estimated to be as high as 50%. We performed this trial to assess the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the prevention of this complication. In a prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we studied 90 patients undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography with DM and CKD (serum creatinine > or = 1.5 mg/dL for men and > or = 1.4 mg/dL for women). The patients were randomly assigned to receive either oral NAC (600 mg BID, starting 24 h before the procedure) or placebo, in adjunct to hydration. Serum creatinine was measured prior to and 48 h after coronary angiography. The primary end-point was the occurrence of CIN, defined as an increase in serum creatinine > or = 0.5 mg/dL (44.2 micromol/L) or > or = 25% above baseline at 48 h after exposure to contrast medium. Complete data on the outcomes were available on 87 patients, 45 of whom had received NAC. There were no significant differences between the NAC and placebo groups in baseline characteristics, amount of hydration, or type and volume of contrast used, except in gender (male/female, 20/25 and 34/11, respectively; P = 0.005) and the use of statins (62.2% and 37.8%, respectively; P = 0.034). CIN occurred in 5 out of 45 (11.1%) patients in the NAC group and 6 out of 42 (14.3%) patients in the placebo group (P = 0.656). There was no detectable benefit for the prophylactic administration of oral NAC over an aggressive hydration protocol in patients with DM and CKD. NCT00808795.
    Trials 07/2009; 10(1):45. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-10-45 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure on the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. To determine recommendations for the prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the role of potential preventative maneuvers including volume expansion, diuretics, use of inotropes, vasopressors/vasodilators, hormonal interventions, nutrition, and extracorporeal techniques. A systematic search of the literature was performed for studies using these potential protective agents in adult patients at risk for acute renal failure/kidney injury between 1966 and 2009. The following clinical conditions were considered: major surgery, critical illness, sepsis, shock, and use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs and radiocontrast media. Where possible the following endpoints were extracted: creatinine clearance, glomerular filtration rate, increase in serum creatinine, urine output, and markers of tubular injury. Clinical endpoints included the need for renal replacement therapy, length of stay, and mortality. Studies are graded according to the international Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) group system Several measures are recommended, though none carries grade 1A. We recommend prompt resuscitation of the circulation with special attention to providing adequate hydration whilst avoiding high-molecular-weight hydroxy-ethyl starch (HES) preparations, maintaining adequate blood pressure using vasopressors in vasodilatory shock. We suggest using vasopressors in vasodilatory hypotension, specific vasodilators under strict hemodynamic control, sodium bicarbonate for emergency procedures administering contrast media, and periprocedural hemofiltration in severe chronic renal insufficiency undergoing coronary intervention.
    Intensive Care Medicine 04/2010; 36(3):392-411. DOI:10.1007/s00134-009-1678-y · 7.21 Impact Factor
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