Reverse remodeling during long-term mechanical unloading of the left ventricle.
ABSTRACT A significant proportion of patients placed on long-term mechanical circulatory support for end-stage heart failure can be weaned from mechanical assistance after functional recovery of their native heart ("bridge to recovery"). The pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in reverse remodeling that cause a sustained functional myocardial recovery have recently become the subject of intensive research, expected to provide information with a view to accurately identify reliable prognostic indicators of recovery. In addition, this kind of information will enable changes in the strategy of myocardial recovery by modifying the duration and scale of the unloading regimen or by combining it with other treatments that promote reverse remodeling.
Circulation Heart Failure 03/2014; 7(2):359-366. DOI:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000250 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Real-time monitoring of the aortic valve function and the loading state of the left ventricle (LV) during mechanical circulatory support is essential. Therefore, we developed a system that determines accurately the aortic valve closing moment based on integrals derived from the pump inlet pressure and the pump power [pressure-power area (PPA)]. A Deltastream diagonal pump was implanted in 10 healthy Rhoen sheep. Changes in ventricular volume and pressure in different assist levels were measured by a conductance catheter placed in the LV and were correlated with intrinsic pump signals, motor power, voltage and current. Measurements were obtained in the state of normal as well as decreased left ventricular contractility induced by β-blockers. Complete datasets were obtained in seven animals. The PPA-feedback signal reached its maximum at the speed of aortic valve closing. This was validated by pressure-volume (PV)-catheter measurements both at the baseline and in the state of decreased contractility. In both cases, zero-crossing occurred at the point of aortic valve closing speed. With this trial, we deliver the experimental basis for the development of an automatic feedback controller that would allow periodic speed changes in accordance with the loading state of the native ventricle and the opening state of the aortic valve. This would deliver real-time data to treating physicians and enable the establishment of a standard weaning protocol.European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 02/2014; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezu006 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ventricular growth is widely considered to be an important feature in the adverse progression of heart diseases, whereas reverse ventricular growth (or reverse remodeling) is often considered to be a favorable response to clinical intervention. In recent years, a number of theoretical models have been proposed to model the process of ventricular growth while little has been done to model its reverse. Based on the framework of volumetric strain-driven finite growth with a homeostatic equilibrium range for the elastic myofiber stretch, we propose here a reversible growth model capable of describing both ventricular growth and its reversal. We used this model to construct a semi-analytical solution based on an idealized cylindrical tube model, as well as numerical solutions based on a truncated ellipsoidal model and a human left ventricular model that was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images. We show that our model is able to predict key features in the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship that were observed experimentally and clinically during ventricular growth and reverse growth. We also show that the residual stress fields generated as a result of differential growth in the cylindrical tube model are similar to those in other nonidentical models utilizing the same geometry.Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 06/2014; 14(2). DOI:10.1007/s10237-014-0598-0 · 3.33 Impact Factor