Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) inhibits adipocyte hypertrophy and down regulates lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese rats

Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2008; 99(2):230-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507793947
Source: PubMed


Bitter melon (Momordica charantia; BM) has been shown to ameliorate diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of BM supplementation on cell size and lipid metabolism in adipose tissues, three groups of rats were respectively fed a high-fat diet supplemented without (HF group) or with 5 % lyophilised BM powder (HFB group), or with 0.01 % thiazolidinedione (TZD) (HFT group). A group of rats fed a low-fat diet was also included as a normal control. Hyperinsulinaemia and glucose intolerance were observed in the HF group but not in HFT and HFB groups. Although the number of large adipocytes (>180 microm) of both the HFB and HFT groups was significantly lower than that of the HF group, the adipose tissue mass, TAG content and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of the HFB group were significantly lower than those of the HFT group, implying that BM might reduce lipogenesis in adipose tissue. Experiment 2 was then conducted to examine the expression of lipogenic genes in adipose tissues of rats fed low-fat, HF or HFB diets. The HFB group showed significantly lower mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, lipoprotein lipase and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein than the HF group (P < 0.05). These results indicate BM can reduce insulin resistance as effective as the anti-diabetic drug TZD. Furthermore, BM can suppress the visceral fat accumulation and inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy, which may be associated with markedly down regulated expressions of lipogenic genes in the adipose.

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Available from: Ching-jang Huang, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "Obesity is generally linked with an increased risk of excessive fat-related metabolic disorders and chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer [4] [19] [20] [21]. These obesity-associated serious complications are forcing research towards long-term safe solutions for weight management and control [22] [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global epidemic and one of the major health burdens of modern times. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide; it constitutes a serious problem in developed as well as developing countries. Beside adults, the number of obese teenagers and children in particular has dramatically increased. Obesity is characterized by accumulation of excess fat in adipose tissues in an extent to produce adverse effects on health, leading to a reduction in life expectancy and/or a raise in health hazards. People are classified as overweight (pre-obese) and obese on the basis of the Body Mass Index (BMI), crude measure which compares weight to height. Obesity is usually associated with and can lead to many disease conditions, mainly type-2 diabetes, cardiac diseases, hypertension, sleep apnea, cerebrovascular incidents, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancers. The tremendously increasing number of reviews on the subject of obesity obviously reflects the amount of investigations currently dedicated to this field. The core of obesity treatment is dieting and physical exercise. The consumption of energy-dense food is reduced versus an increase in that of dietary fibers. Conventional medication relies mainly on drugs which either reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. However, drug treatment of obesity despite short-term benefits, is often associated with undesirable harmful side effects, rebound weight gain after discontinuation of drug intake, and the incidence of drug abuse. If diet, exercise and pharmacological therapy are ineffective; surgical intervention may be useful. The anti-obesity potential of natural products if accurately explored might provide an excellent alternative strategy for the scientifically-based development of safe and effective drugs. Especially that, they are actually widespread for this purpose as nutritional supplements. OTC anti-obesity natural products are mostly complex in terms of chemical composition and may exert a variety of pharmacological actions leading to weight loss. These include: inhibition of lipases activity, suppression of appetite, stimulation of energy expenditure, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and regulation of lipid metabolism. A variety of natural products, including crude extracts and isolated compounds induce body weight reduction and prevent diet-induced obesity. Examples of these constituents are polyphenols, triterpenoidal and steroidal saponins, pregnane glycosides, alkaloids, abietane diterpenes and carotenoids amongst others. In addition, a number of lipase inhibitors are obtained from microbial sources.
    09/2014: pages 130-210;
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    • "Recently, many herbal medicines and their derivatives have drawn attention because of their beneficial effect on the treatment of obesity without causing significant side effects or low risk for addiction [8]. For instance, a number of animal studies showed that many herbal medicines such as ginseng [9], Rhus verniciflua Stokes [10], Juniperus chinensis [11], and Momordica charantia [12] are effective in reducing weight gain in high fat-induced obesity animal models. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the antiobesity effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract in a 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation model and rats fed with a high-fat diet. To investigate the effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume on adipogenesis in vitro, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells in adipocyte-induction media were treated every two days with Achyranthes bidentata Blume at various concentrations (1 to 25 μ g/mL) for eight days. We found that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without affecting cell viability, and Western blot analysis revealed that phospho-Akt expression was markedly decreased, whereas there was no significant change in perilipin expression. Furthermore, administration of Achyranthes bidentata Blume root (0.5 g/kg body weight for six weeks) to rats fed with a high-fat diet significantly reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, and the level of triglyceride was significantly decreased when compared to those in rats fed with only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that Achyranthes bidentata Blume root water extract could have a beneficial effect on inhibition of adipogenesis and controlling body weight in rats fed with a high-fat diet.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2014; 2014(1):158018. DOI:10.1155/2014/158018 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "In the past few years, the beneficial effects of BM or its extracts on obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance were continuously affirmed in various experimental animals, including mice [14-20] and rats [21-23]. The related mechanistic study indicated that BM or its constituents might enhance AMP-associated protein kinase (AMPK) [14,15], peroxisome proliferator activating receptors (PPARs) [16,17] and insulin [18-21] signals in tissues, reduce lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissues [22], and increase lipid oxidation in adipose tissues [23]. With regard to obesity-associated inflammation, dietary BM can suppress pro-inflammatory mediator leptin and resistin levels in adipose tissues [16] and plasma [16,20], elevate system levels of anti-inflammatory mediator adiponectin [17] and improve system and brain inflammation [24] in mice fed with high fat diets (HFD). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a world-wide epidemic disease that correlates closely with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity-induced chronic adipose tissue inflammation is now considered as a critical contributor to the above complications. Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) is a traditional Chinese food and well known for its function of reducing body weight gain and insulin resistance. However, it is unclear whether BM could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation caused by obesity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) with or without BM for 12 weeks. BM-contained diets ameliorated HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Histological and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated BM not only reduced macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Flow cytometry show that BM could modify the M1/M2 phenotype ratio of macrophages in EAT. Further study showed that BM lowered mast cell recruitments in EAT, and depressed pro-inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in EAT and BAT as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in EAT. Finally, ELISA analysis showed BM-contained diets also normalized serum levels of the cytokines. In summary, in concert with ameliorated insulin resistance and fat deposition, BM reduced adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84075. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084075 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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