Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors regulate growth of human glioblastoma via Akt activation.
ABSTRACT Evidence has been accumulated that glioblastoma cells release and exploit glutamate for proliferation and migration by autocrine or paracrine loops through Ca2+-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Here, we show that Ca2+ signaling mediated by AMPA receptor regulates the growth and motility of glioblastoma cells via activation of Akt. Ca2+ supplied through Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor phosphorylated Akt at Ser-473, thereby facilitating proliferation and mobility. A dominant-negative form of Akt inhibited cell proliferation and migration accelerated by overexpression of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor. In contrast, introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt rescued tumor cells from apoptosis induced by the conversion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor to Ca2+-impermeable receptors by the delivery of GluR2 cDNA. Therefore, Akt functions as downstream effectors for Ca2+-signaling mediated by AMPA receptor in glioblastoma cells. The activation of the glutamate-AMPA receptor-Akt pathway may contribute to the high degree of anaplasia and invasive growth of human glioblastoma. This novel pathway might give an alternative therapeutic target.
- SourceAvailable from: Simona Arena[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant bone tumour, affecting mainly children and young adults between 10 and 20 years of age. It represents the most frequent primitive malignant tumour of the skeletal system and is characterized by an extremely aggressive clinical course, with rapid development of lung metastases. In the last few years, targeting Src in the treatment of OS has become one of the major challenges in the development of new drugs, since an elevated Src kinase activity has been associated with the development and the maintenance of the OS malignant phenotype. Recently, SI-83, a novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivate Src inhibitor, was selected as a promising OS therapeutic drug because of its elevated anti-tumour effects toward human OS. In the present study, gel-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics revealed significant changes in proteins involved in many cancer related processes. We got insight into SI-83 proapoptotic and antiproliferative properties (overrepresentation of GRIA1, GRP78, and CALR and underrepresentation of NPM1, RCN, and P4HB). Nevertheless, the most significant findings of our work are the SI-83 induced dephosphorylation of ARPC5L, a subunit of the actin related Arp2/3 complex, and the decrease of other cytoskeleton proteins. These data, together with a dramatic impairment of SaOS-2 cell migration and adhesion, suggest that SI-83 may have antimetastatic features that enhance its use as a potent OS chemotherapeutic drug.Molecular BioSystems 03/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nucleotide sequence modification through single base editing in animals is emerging as an important player in tumorigenesis. RNA editing especially has increased greatly during mammalian evolution and modulates diverse cellular functions presumably in a context-dependent manner. Sequence editing impacts development, including pluripotency and hematopoiesis, and multiple recent studies have shown that dysregulation of editing is associated with tumor biology. Much is yet to be learned about the role of sequence editing in human biology but this process is a critical modulator of cell regulation and may present an attractive option for therapeutic intervention in cancer in the future. Sequence editing provides an additional regulatory layer of cancer initiation and progression that may be amenable to therapeutic design. Although editing of both RNA and DNA substrates have been known to occur for some time, the extent and implications of these modifications have been grossly underappreciated until recent genome-wide and disease-association studies were reported. This review highlights the cellular processes controlled by sequence editing, their implications in normal and cancerous states and considers potential targeted therapeutic strategies.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Object Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor, and overall patient survival has not been prolonged even by conventional therapies. Previously, the authors found that chemically synthesized glycans could be anticancer agents against growth of a series of cancer cells. In this study, the authors examined the effects of glycans on the growth of glioblastoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods The authors investigated not only the occurrence of changes in the cell signaling molecules and expression levels of various proteins related to cell death, but also a mouse model involving the injection of glioblastoma cells following the administration of synthetic glycans. Results Synthetic glycans inhibited the growth of glioblastoma cells, induced the apoptosis of the cells with cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression and DNA fragmentation, and also caused autophagy, as shown by the detection of autophagosome proteins and monodansylcadaverine staining. Furthermore, tumor growth in the in vivo mouse model was significantly inhibited. A dramatic induction of programmed cell death was found in glioblastoma cells after treatment with synthetic glycans. Conclusions These results suggest that synthetic glycans could be a promising novel anticancer agent for performing chemotherapy against glioblastoma.Journal of Neurosurgery 03/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor