Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia.

UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and UMDNJ-School of Public Health Tobacco Dependence Program, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 08/2007; 9(8):873-81. DOI: 10.1080/14622200701484995
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined whether smoking menthol cigarettes was associated with increased biochemical measures of smoke intake. Expired carbon monoxide (CO) and serum nicotine and cotinine were measured in 89 smokers with schizophrenia and 53 control smokers immediately after smoking an afternoon cigarette. Serum nicotine levels (27 vs. 22 ng/ml, p = .010), serum cotinine levels (294 vs. 240 ng/ml, p = .041), and expired CO (25 vs. 21 ppm, p = .029) were higher in smokers of menthol compared with nonmenthol cigarettes, with no differences in 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratios between groups when controlling for race. Backward stepwise linear regression models showed that, in addition to having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, smoking menthol cigarettes was a significant predictor of nicotine and cotinine levels. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder smoked more generic or discount value brands (Basic, Doral, Monarch, USA, Wave, others) compared with control smokers (28% vs. 6%, p = .002) but did not smoke more brands with high nicotine delivery as estimated by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission method. Although rates of mentholated cigarette smoking were not higher in smokers with schizophrenia overall, they were significantly higher in non-Hispanic White people with schizophrenia compared with controls of the same ethnic/racial subgroup (51% vs. 28%, p<.0001). The higher exhaled CO in menthol smokers suggests that the higher nicotine levels are at least partly related to increased intake of smoke from menthol cigarettes, although menthol-mediated inhibition of nicotine metabolism also may be a factor. Menthol is an important cigarette additive that may help explain why some groups have lower quit rates and more smoking-caused disease.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With a focus on protecting vulnerable groups from initiating and continuing tobacco use, the FDA has been considering regulation of menthol in cigarettes. In a large sample of adult smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) in the San Francisco Bay Area, the current study examined demographic and clinical correlates of menthol use and compared the prevalence of menthol use to that of adult smokers in the general population in California.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 09/2014; 17(3). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu141 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nimpitakpong P. and Dhippayom T. Menthol cigarettes: Tobacco control policy in Thailand. J Pub. Health Dev. 2012; 10(2): 72-85 Thailand has more than 12.5 million smokers (8 million smoke cigarettes). About 19% of cigarette smokers smoke menthol cigarettes. This article reviews previous research related to menthol cigarettes in order to improve public health policy regarding tobacco control. The review shows that menthol cigarette smokers' risk of developing diseases was equivalent to that of those who smoke non-menthol cigarettes. However, menthol cigarette smokers believe that menthol had medicinal benefits and therefore were less harmful than normal cigarettes. The tobacco industry uses menthol cigarettes to target young and new smokers as well as those who intend to quit smoking. This strategy will either increase the number of smokers or not reduce the number of smokers as much as expected. The challenge for tobacco control policy in Thailand is to comply with the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control by prohibiting the use on cigarette packs of the word "menthol" or other terms which could imply as a cooling property and to ban menthol cigarettes in Thailand.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of L-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and developed a method to measure a cigarette's menthol and nicotine content. With our custom-mentholation technique we achieved the desired moderately high menthol content (as compared to commercial brands) of 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/g (n = 25) without perturbing the cigarettes’ nicotine content (17.7 ± 0.9 mg/g [n = 25]). We also characterized other pertinent attributes of our custom-mentholated cigarettes, including percent transmission of menthol and nicotine to mainstream smoke and the rate of loss of menthol over time during storage at room temperature. We are currently using this simple mentholation technique to investigate the differences in human exposure to selected chemicals in cigarette smoke due only to the presence of the added menthol. Our cigarettes will also aid in the elucidation of the effects of menthol on the toxicity of tobacco smoke.
    Toxicology Reports 01/2014; 1:1068-1075. DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.10.009