Workshop on imaging science development for cancer prevention and preemption.

NIH/NCI/DCTD, Cancer Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Cancer biomarkers: section A of Disease markers (Impact Factor: 1.19). 02/2007; 3(1):1-33.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The concept of intraepithelial neoplasm (IEN) as a near-obligate precursor of cancers has generated opportunities to examine drug or device intervention strategies that may reverse or retard the sometimes lengthy process of carcinogenesis. Chemopreventive agents with high therapeutic indices, well-monitored for efficacy and safety, are greatly needed, as is development of less invasive or minimally disruptive visualization and assessment methods to safely screen nominally healthy but at-risk patients, often for extended periods of time and at repeated intervals. Imaging devices, alone or in combination with anticancer drugs, may also provide novel interventions to treat or prevent precancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in computer and information technologies have allowed the integration of both numeric and non-numeric data, that is, descriptive, linguistic terms. This has led at 1 end of the spectrum of technology development to machine vision based on image understanding and, at the other, to decision support systems. This has had a significant impact on our capability to derive diagnostic and prognostic information from histopathological material with prostate neoplasms. Cancer 2009;115(13 suppl):3068–77. © 2009 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 07/2009; 115(S13):3068 - 3077. DOI:10.1002/cncr.24345
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer associated stromal fibroblasts (CAFs) undergo transcriptional and phenotypic changes that contribute to tumor progression, but the mechanisms responsible for these changes are not well understood. Aberrant DNA methylation is an important cause of transcriptional alterations in cancer cells but it is not known how important DNA methylation alterations are to CAF behavior. We used Affymetrix exon arrays to compare genes induced by the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-dC in cultured pancreatic cancer associated fibroblasts, pancreatic control fibroblasts and pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that pancreatic CAFs and control pancreatic fibroblasts were less responsive to 5-aza-dC-mediated gene reactivation than pancreatic cancer cells (mean+/-SD of genes induced ≥5-fold was 9±10 genes in 10 pancreatic CAF cultures, 17±14 genes in 3 control pancreatic fibroblast cultures, and 134±85 genes in 4 pancreatic cancer cell lines). We examined differentially expressed genes between CAFs and control fibroblasts for candidate methylated genes and identified the disintegrin and metalloprotease, ADAM12 as hypomethylated and overexpressed in pancreatic CAF lines and overexpressed in fibroblasts adjacent to primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Compared to pancreatic cancer cells, few genes are reactivated by DNMT1 inhibition in pancreatic CAFs suggesting these cells do not harbor many functionally important alterations in DNA methylation. CAFs may also not be very responsive to therapeutic targeting with DNA methylation inhibitors.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e43456. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043456
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    ABSTRACT: Direct visualization of pancreatic ductal tissue is critical for early diagnosis of pancreatic diseases and for guiding therapeutic interventions. A novel, ultrathin (5 Fr) scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) with tip-bending capability has been developed specifically to achieve high resolution imaging as a pancreatoscope during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This device has potential to dramatically improve both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities during ERCP by providing direct video feedback and tool guidance to clinicians. Invasiveness of the new tip-bending SFE was evaluated by a performance comparison to ERCP guide wires, which are routinely inserted into the pancreatic duct during ERCP. An in vitro test model with four force sensors embedded in a synthetic pancreas was designed to detect and compare the insertion forces for 0.89 mm and 0.53 mm diameter guide wires as well as the 1.7 mm diameter SFE. Insertions were performed through the working channel of a therapeutic duodenoscope for the two types of guide wires and using a statistically similar direct insertion method for comparison to the SFE. Analysis of the forces detected by the sensors showed the smaller diameter 0.53 mm wire produced significantly less average and maximum forces during insertion than the larger diameter 0.89 mm wire. With the use of tip-bending and optical visualization, the 1.7 mm diameter SFE produced significantly less average force during insertion than the 0.89 mm wire at every sensor, despite its larger size. It was further shown that the use of tip-bending with the SFE significantly reduced the forces at all sensors, compared to insertions when tip-bending was not used. Combining high quality video imaging with two-axis tip-bending allows a larger diameter guide wire-style device to be inserted into the pancreatic duct during ERCP with improved capacity to perform diagnostics and therapy.
    Medical Devices: Evidence and Research 01/2012; 5:1-12. DOI:10.2147/MDER.S27439


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May 30, 2014