Neuropsychological consequences of endarterectomy and endovascular angioplasty with stent placement for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: a prospective randomised study.
ABSTRACT Previous studies compared carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stent placement (CAS) for treatment of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Whereas most previous studies showed both treatment modalities to be associated with a comparable risk of periprocedural cerebrovascular complications, these previous studies have shown significantly more microemboli and significantly more lesions in diffusion-weighted MR imaging after CAS compared to CEA. The clinical relevance of these differences remains unknown. We therefore compared the neuropsychological consequences of CAS and CEA and additionally measured the S100beta protein, a marker of cerebral damage.
A total of 48 patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis greater than 70 % (according to ECST criteria) were enrolled and 45 patients participated in the follow-up. The patients were randomly assigned for CEA (24 patients) or CAS (21 patients). S100beta protein values were evaluated 2 hours before the procedure, as well as one and two hours thereafter. Patients were assessed before treatment, and again 6 and 30 days after treatment using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery.
Patients of the CAS and the CEA groups did not significantly differ in terms of age, gender, education, degree of carotid artery stenosis, cerebrovascular symptoms and vascular risk factors. Following previously used criteria, a cognitive change in patients was assumed to have occurred when there was a decline of more than one standard deviation in two or more tests assessing various cognitive domains. Six days and 30 days after the treatment both groups showed a comparable number of patients with cognitive changes compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in S100beta protein values.
These results provide some reassurance that CAS is not associated with greater cognitive deterioration than CEA is.
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ABSTRACT: The discrepancy between current and premorbid ability is a relevant indicator of acquired mental impairment, which itself is closely related to general cerebral dysfunction. The use of tests sensitive to cerebral dysfunction, raises relatively few problems compared with tests being resistant that are used to estimate premorbid mental ability. For premorbid ability, verbal tests assessing knowledge, especially vocabulary, have been shown to be valid. A test, possibly more insensitive to brain dysfunction than the ones usually administered, is the multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT = Mehrfachwahl-Wortschatz-Test). At present only German versions are available. They are presented in some detail because of their advantages. Construction of the MWT is simple, and it can be easily administered in about five minutes. The results correlate fairly well with global IQ in healthy adults (median of r = 0.72 in 22 samples) and are more insensitive to current disturbances than such tests as the WAIS vocabulary test. The limitations of premorbid tests with respect to diagnostic validity are discussed. It is concluded, that studies which do not control premorbid intelligence have to be considered as a "malpractice" and should not be accepted by scientists.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 06/1995; 91(5):335-45. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biochemical markers of acute neuronal injury may aid in the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke. Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell injury. These biochemical markers, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and soluble thrombomodulin, were studied for an association with initial stroke severity, infarct volume, and functional outcome. In the original NINDS study, serum samples were drawn from all patients on presentation to the Emergency Department and at approximately 2 and 24 hours after initiation of study therapy. In this analysis, stored serum samples were available for 359 patients; 107 patients had samples for all 3 time points. Serum marker concentrations were measured by ELISA techniques. We examined the relation between serum concentrations of each marker and the degree of baseline neurological deficit, functional outcome, and infarct size on computed tomography at 24 hours and the effect of fibrinolytic therapy. Higher 24-hour peak concentrations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale baseline scores (r=0.186, P<0.0001; r=0.117, P=0.032; and r=0.263, P<0.0001, respectively). Higher peak concentrations of MBP and S100beta (r=0.209, P<0.0001; r=0.239, P<0.0001) were associated with larger computed tomography lesion volumes. Patients with favorable outcomes had smaller changes in MBP and S100beta (P<0.05) concentrations in the first 24 hours. Soluble thrombomodulin was not associated with any severity or outcome measure. This study corroborates previous work demonstrating correlations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta with clinical and radiographic features in acute stroke. Despite significantly better outcomes in the tissue plasminogen activator-treated group, we found no difference in the early release of the 4 biomarkers between treatment groups. Further study will define the role of biomarkers in acute stroke management and prognostication.Stroke 11/2006; 37(10):2508-13. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive dysfunction has been shown to occur in roughly 25% of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Despite this, little is known about the mechanism of this injury. Recently, several groups have shown that new diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)-positive lesions are seen in 20% of patients undergoing CEA. We investigated to what degree neurocognitive dysfunction was associated with new DWI lesions. Thirty-four consecutive patients undergoing CEA were subjected to pre- and postoperative cognitive evaluation with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients within 24 hours of surgery. Lesions that showed high signal on DWI and restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps but no abnormal high signal on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were considered hyperacute. Cognitive dysfunction was seen in eight (24%) patients. New hyperacute DWI lesions were seen in three (9%). Only one (13%) of the patients with cognitive dysfunction had a new DWI lesion. Two thirds of the new DWI lesions occurred in the absence of cognitive deterioration. Patients with cognitive dysfunction had significantly longer carotid cross-clamp times. Neurocognitive dysfunction after CEA does not seem to be associated with new DWI positive lesions.Neurosurgery 04/2006; 58(3):474-80; discussion 474-80. · 2.53 Impact Factor