Secreted isoforms of amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) that contain the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor domain, also known as protease nexin-2 (PN2), are enriched in brain. Although little is known of its physiological function, the potent inhibition of certain prothrombotic proteinases by PN2/AbetaPP suggests that it may function to regulate cerebral thrombosis during vascular injury events.
To examine the antithrombotic function of cerebral PN2/AbetaPP in vivo, we performed measurements of carotid artery thrombosis and experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in transgenic mice with specific and modest overexpression of PN2/AbetaPP in brain. Comparisons were made with wild-type mice and Tg-rPF4/APP mice, a model that possesses specific and modest overexpression of PN2/AbetaPP in platelets and exhibits reduced thrombosis in vivo.
Modest overexpression of PN2/AbetaPP in transgenic mouse brain had no effect on intraluminal carotid arterial thrombosis but resulted in larger hematoma volumes and hemoglobin levels (23.1+/-2.7 mm(3) [n=6; P<0.01] and 1411+/-202 microg/hemisphere [n=12; P<0.01], respectively), compared with wild-type mice (15.9+/-2.2 mm(3) [n=6] and 935+/-418 microg/hemisphere [n=12], respectively).
These findings indicate that cerebral PN2/AbetaPP plays a significant role in regulating thrombosis in brain and that modest age-related increases in the cerebral levels of this protein could markedly enhance the extent of cerebral hemorrhage.
"The role of APP in platelet is currently unclear. It has been proposed that soluble APP fragments may regulate thrombosis and haemostasis in vivo through the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor domain , and that a pool of APP soluble fragments is stored in platelet α-granules and is released upon platelet stimulation with several agonists . The proteolytic processing of APP on the platelet surface shares some common feature with the well-described shedding of extracellular domains of some platelet receptors, including the collagen receptor GPVI, the GPIbα and GPV subunits of the von Willebrand factor receptor GPIb-IX-V complex, and the inhibitory receptor PECAM-1 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A balance between the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein APP through the amyloidogenic and the non-amyloidogenic pathways controls the production and release of amyloid β-protein, whose accumulation in the brain is associated to the onset of Alzheimer Disease. APP is also expressed on circulating platelets. The regulation of APP processing in these cells is poorly understood. In this work we show that platelets store considerable amounts of APP fragments, including sAPPα, that can be released upon stimulation of platelets. Moreover, platelet stimulation also promotes the proteolysis of intact APP expressed on the cell surface. This process is supported by an ADAM metalloproteinase, and causes the release of sAPPα. Processing of intact platelet APP is promoted also by treatment with calmodulin antagonist W7. W7-induced APP proteolysis occurs through the non-amyloidogenic pathway, is mediated by a metalloproteinase, and causes the release of sAPPα. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments revealed a physical association between calmodulin and APP. These results document a novel role of calmodulin in the regulation of non-amyloidogenic processing of APP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) is best recognized as the precursor to the Abeta peptide that accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, but less is known about its physiological functions. Isoforms of AbetaPP that contain a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain are expressed in brain and, outside the CNS, in circulating blood platelets. Recently, we showed that KPI-containing forms of AbetaPP regulates cerebral thrombosis in vivo (Xu et al., 2005, 2007). Amyloid precursor like protein-2 (APLP2), a closely related homolog to AbetaPP, also possesses a highly conserved KPI domain. Virtually nothing is known of its function. Here, we show that APLP2 also regulates cerebral thrombosis risk. Recombinant purified KPI domains of AbetaPP and APLP2 both inhibit the plasma clotting in vitro. In a carotid artery thrombosis model, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice exhibit similar significantly shorter times to vessel occlusion compared with wild-type mice indicating a prothrombotic phenotype. Similarly, in an experimental model of intracerebral hemorrhage, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice produce significantly smaller hematomas with reduced brain hemoglobin content compared with wild-type mice. Together, these results indicate that AbetaPP and APLP2 share overlapping anticoagulant functions with regard to regulating thrombosis after cerebral vascular injury.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(17):5666-70. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0095-09.2009 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: alpha-Granules are essential to normal platelet activity. These unusual secretory granules derive their cargo from both regulated secretory and endocytotic pathways in megakaryocytes. Rare, inheritable defects of alpha-granule formation in mice and man have enabled identification of proteins that mediate cargo trafficking and alpha-granule formation. In platelets, alpha-granules fuse with the plasma membrane upon activation, releasing their cargo and increasing platelet surface area. The mechanisms that control alpha-granule membrane fusion have begun to be elucidated at the molecular level. SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins that control alpha-granule secretion have been identified. Proteomic studies demonstrate that hundreds of bioactive proteins are released from alpha-granules. This breadth of proteins implies a versatile functionality. While initially known primarily for their participation in thrombosis and hemostasis, the role of alpha-granules in inflammation, atherosclerosis, antimicrobial host defense, wound healing, angiogenesis, and malignancy has become increasingly appreciated as the function of platelets in the pathophysiology of these processes has been defined. This review will consider the formation, release, and physiologic roles of alpha-granules with special emphasis on work performed over the last decade.
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