Increased severity of Hemorrhage in Transgenic mice expressing cerebral protease Nexin-2/Amyloid beta-protein precursor
ABSTRACT Secreted isoforms of amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) that contain the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor domain, also known as protease nexin-2 (PN2), are enriched in brain. Although little is known of its physiological function, the potent inhibition of certain prothrombotic proteinases by PN2/AbetaPP suggests that it may function to regulate cerebral thrombosis during vascular injury events.
To examine the antithrombotic function of cerebral PN2/AbetaPP in vivo, we performed measurements of carotid artery thrombosis and experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in transgenic mice with specific and modest overexpression of PN2/AbetaPP in brain. Comparisons were made with wild-type mice and Tg-rPF4/APP mice, a model that possesses specific and modest overexpression of PN2/AbetaPP in platelets and exhibits reduced thrombosis in vivo.
Modest overexpression of PN2/AbetaPP in transgenic mouse brain had no effect on intraluminal carotid arterial thrombosis but resulted in larger hematoma volumes and hemoglobin levels (23.1+/-2.7 mm(3) [n=6; P<0.01] and 1411+/-202 microg/hemisphere [n=12; P<0.01], respectively), compared with wild-type mice (15.9+/-2.2 mm(3) [n=6] and 935+/-418 microg/hemisphere [n=12], respectively).
These findings indicate that cerebral PN2/AbetaPP plays a significant role in regulating thrombosis in brain and that modest age-related increases in the cerebral levels of this protein could markedly enhance the extent of cerebral hemorrhage.
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ABSTRACT: The importance of inflammatory processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression has been confirmed during the past decade by the intensive investigation of inflammatory mediators in the brain of AD patients as well as by the genetic and drug manipulation of animal models of AD. Imaging studies have revealed that the activation of microglia occurs in early stages of the disease, even before plaque and tangle formation, and is correlated with early cognitive deficits. In this review, we analyze how different risk factors, such as trauma, stroke, infection, and metabolic diseases can lead to an acceleration of the inflammatory response in the AD brain and to an increased risk of developing this disorder. The use of imaging techniques for early detection of glial activation which offer the advantage of investigating how potential anti-inflammatory therapies may influence disease progression and levels of cognition is also discussed.Current Alzheimer research 02/2011; 8(2):132-41. DOI:10.2174/156720511795256062 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is accompanied by the accumulation of amyloid peptides in the brain parenchyma and in the cerebral vessels. The sporadic form of AD accounts for about 95% of all cases. It is characterized by a late onset, typically after the age of 65, with a complex and still poorly understood aetiology. Several observations point towards a central role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the onset of sporadic AD (SAD). According to the “vascular hypothesis”, AD may be initiated by vascular dysfunctions that precede and promote the neurodegenerative process. In accordance to this, AD patients show increased hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke risks. It is now clear that multiple bidirectional connections exist between AD and cerebrovascular disease, and in this new scenario, the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular cells and blood platelets appear to be central to AD. In this review, we analyze the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular function and platelet activation and its contribution to the cerebrovascular pathology associated with AD and the progression of this disease.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00065 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most Alzheimer disease (AD) patients show deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide in blood vessels as well as the brain parenchyma. We previously found that vascular endothelial cells express amyloid β precursor protein (APP) 770, a different APP isoform from neuronal APP695, and that they produce Aβ. We analyzed the glycosylation of APP770 and found that O-glycosylated sAPP770 is preferentially processed by proteases for Aβ production. Because the soluble APP cleavage product sAPP is considered to be a possible marker for AD diagnosis, sAPP, consisting of a mixture of these variants, has been widely measured. We hypothesized that measurement of the endothelial APP770 cleavage product in patients separately from that of neuronal APP695 would enable us to discriminate between endothelial and neurological dysfunctions. Our recent findings, showing that the level of plasma sAPP770 is significantly higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome, raise the possibility that sAPP770 could be an indicator of endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we first describe the expression, glycosylation, and processing of APP770, and then discuss sAPP770 as a novel biomarker candidate of acute coronary syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 09/2013; 7(9-10). DOI:10.1002/prca.201200135 · 2.68 Impact Factor