The transition to young adulthood in youth with type 1 diabetes on intensive treatment.
ABSTRACT We sought to examine prospectively patterns of clinical and psychosocial outcomes during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood in a cohort initiating intensive therapy after the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.
We conducted a prospective, descriptive analysis of data from a randomized intervention study with 117 adolescents (45 males and 72 females, mean age at entry = 14.4 +/- 2.0 yr, mean diabetes duration at entry = 5.7 +/- 3.7 yr) recruited from a large pediatric diabetes clinic. Data were collected for each subject over periods of up to 5 yr at 6-month intervals using measures of depressive symptoms, quality of life, and metabolic control, with chart review for prevalence of diabetes complications.
Metabolic control worsens during adolescence but returns to early adolescent levels in young adulthood. The negative impact of diabetes on quality of life, disease-related worries, and life satisfaction did not change significantly with age. These results did not vary with treatment group or gender. Participants who showed high levels of depressive symptoms as adolescents were somewhat more likely to be depressed when older. Despite relatively long duration of diabetes, relatively few complications were observed in young adulthood.
These data suggest that youth who begin intensive treatment as adolescents generally have good metabolic and psychosocial outcomes as young adults. However, those who have high levels of depressive symptoms in adolescence tend to continue to have such symptoms in early adulthood.
Article: Continuity and change in glycemic control trajectories from adolescence to emerging adulthood: relationships with family climate and self-concept in type 1 diabetes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine developmental classes of glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes throughout adolescence and emerging adulthood and assess relationships with general family climate and self-concept. In an eight-wave longitudinal study, 72 individuals (37 females) completed questionnaires assessing family climate (at times 1-4) and self-concept (at times 1-4 and 6). Times 1-4 covered adolescence (mean ages were 14-17 years, respectively); times 5-8 covered emerging adulthood (mean ages were 21-25 years, respectively). At each time point, patients visited their physicians to determine A1C values, and questionnaires were sent to the physicians to obtain these values. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify developmental classes of glycemic control. Latent class growth analysis favored a three-class solution, consisting of optimal control (n = 10), moderate control (n = 51), and deteriorating control (n = 11). From time 3 on and especially during emerging adulthood, mean A1C levels were substantially different among the classes. Additional ANOVAs indicated that at times 1, 2, and 4, the optimal control class was characterized by the most optimal family climate, whereas at times 3, 4, and 6, the deteriorating control class was characterized by the lowest score on positive self-concept. From late adolescence on, a multiformity of glycemic control trajectories emerged, which became more diversified throughout emerging adulthood. Family climate and self-concept in mid-to-late adolescence served as psychosocial markers of these developmental classes.Diabetes care 03/2009; 32(5):797-801. · 8.09 Impact Factor
Article: Annotated bibliography of NINR findings on women's health across the lifespan, 2008 update.Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing 37(6):702-4. · 1.03 Impact Factor
Article: Incremental value of continuous glucose monitoring when starting pump therapy in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes: the RealTrend study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To compare the improvements in glycemic control associated with transitioning to insulin pump therapy in patients using continuous glucose monitoring versus standard blood glucose self-monitoring. The RealTrend study was a 6-month, randomized, parallel-group, two-arm, open-label study of 132 adults and children with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes (A1C >or=8%) being treated with multiple daily injections. One group was fitted with the Medtronic MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time system (PRT group), an insulin pump with integrated continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM) capability, with instructions to wear CGM sensors at least 70% of the time. Conventional insulin pump therapy was initiated in the other group (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] group). Outcome measures included A1C and glycemic variability. A total of 115 patients completed the study. Between baseline and trial end, A1C improved significantly in both groups (PRT group -0.81 +/- 1.09%, P < 0.001; CSII group -0.57 +/- 0.94%, P < 0.001), with no significant difference between groups. When the 91 patients who were fully protocol-compliant (including CGM sensor wear >or=70% of the time) were considered, A1C improvement was significantly greater in the PRT group (P = 0.004) (PRT group -0.96 +/- 0.93%, P < 0.001; CSII group -0.55 +/- 0.93%, P < 0.001). Hyperglycemia parameters decreased in line with improvements in A1C with no impact on hypoglycemia. CGM-enabled insulin pump therapy improves glycemia more than conventional pump therapy during the first 6 months of pump use in patients who wear CGM sensors at least 70% of the time.Diabetes care 09/2009; 32(12):2245-50. · 8.09 Impact Factor