Unfortunately, very little research has examined the link between antisocial personality traits in childhood and adult psychopathy. This study used data from a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys, assessed annually from recruitment (ages 7 to 12) through age 19. Parent and teacher ratings of interpersonal callousness (IC) were tested at predictors of psychopathy ratings at 18 and 19. In regression models, conduct disorder (CD) and teacher-rated IC both predicted both Factor 1 (interpersonal and affective items) and Factor 2 (impulsivity and antisocial behavior items) of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, as did child IQ. Prenatal tobacco exposure and cortisol measured in adolescence predicted only Factor 1. When each factor was included in the prediction of the other, CD and IC no longer predicted Factor 1 but remained significant predictors of Factor 2.
"The lower DMN activity observed during resting state conditions might reflect the maldevelopment of endogenous thought, regulating emotions, self-inspection and future planning in CD youth. Indeed, callous–unemotional and emotion control are considered two core impairments associated with CD (Woodworth and Waschbusch 2008), these traits can be detectable in childhood as CD and may persist into adulthood as ASPD (Burke et al. 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conduct disorder (CD) is a serious behavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence. The default mode network (DMN) is a brain network which supports self-referential cognitive processes and is typically deactivated during task performance. The aim of this study was to investigate DMN connectivity in male adolescents with pure CD compared to typically-developing controls. Eighteen male adolescents with CD and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched typically-developing (TD) participants were recruited. Current and lifetime psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Chinese version of the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained using a 3.0 T scanner. Independent components analysis (ICA) was used to investigate functional connectivity between the DMN and related brain regions. DMN activity was observed in medial prefrontal, posterior cingulate, and lateral parietal cortices, and extended to the brainstem. Adolescents with CD showed significantly reduced functional connectivity within the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral precuneus and right superior temporal gyrus relative to TD controls. CD is associated with reduced functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and other regions. These preliminary results suggest that deficits in DMN functional connectivity may serve as a biomarker of CD.
Brain Imaging and Behavior 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11682-015-9465-6 · 4.60 Impact Factor
"These features were previously included in the concept of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits (Frick et al., 2003; Frick and White, 2008), and are also considered core elements in the clinical descriptions of adult psychopathy (Blair et al., 2006b). An additional feature of the CU traits is their stability from childhood to adolescence (Burke et al., 2007) and adulthood (Lynam et al., 2007). Previous research has Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/psychres "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficits in emotional reactivity are frequently reported in Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs). A deficit in prosocial emotions, namely the callous unemotional traits (CU), may be a mediator of emotional reactivity. Our aim is to investigate subjective emotional reactivity towards visual stimuli with different affective valence in youths with DBDs and healthy controls. The clinical sample included 62 youths with DBDs (51 males, 8 to 16 years, mean 11.3±2.1 years), the control group 53 subjects (36 males, 8 to 16 years, mean 10.8±1.5 years). The groups were compared using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), and the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which explores the affective (pleasant/unpleasant emotional reaction) and arousal (low/high intensity of emotion) dimensions. The DBD group presented higher scores in externalizing and internalizing CBCL scores, and in ICU callous and indifferent subscales. At the IAPS, DBD patients differed from controls in the affective valence of the images, rating less unpleasant neutral and negative images. The CU traits were the only predictor of emotional reactivity in the DBD sample. A less aversive way to interpret neutral and negative stimuli may explain why DBD patients are less responsive to negative reinforcements.
Psychiatry Research 07/2014; 220(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.07.035 · 2.47 Impact Factor
"Two studies summarized in Table 1 provide information on the stability of traits over somewhat longer periods from childhood into early adulthood. First, Burke et al. (2007) reported that both parent-and teacher-rated CU traits assessed at ages 7–12 in a sample of clinic-referred boys (n = 177) were significantly associated with clinician-rated CU traits at ages 18 and 19. Second, Lynam, Caspi, Moffitt, Loeber, and Stouthamer-Loeber (2007) reported that self-report of psychopathic traits, which included CU traits, at age 13 (n = 250) was significantly associated , r = .31 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research has suggested that the presence of significant levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a clinically important and etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Based on this research, CU traits have been included in the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) - as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. In this review, we attempt to understand CU traits within a developmental psychopathological framework. Specifically, we summarize research on the normal development of the prosocial emotions of empathy and guilt (i.e., conscience) and we illustrate how the development of CU traits can be viewed as the normal development of conscience gone awry. Furthermore, we review research on the stability of CU traits across different developmental periods and highlight factors that can influence this stability. Finally, we highlight the implications of this developmental psychopathological framework for future etiological research, for assessment and diagnostic classification, and for treatment of children with serious conduct problems.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 10/2013; 55(6). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12152 · 6.46 Impact Factor
Barbara Krahé, Stans de Haas, Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Gabriel Bianchi, Joannes Chliaoutakis, Antonio Fuertes, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Eleni Hadjigeorgiou, Sabine Hellemans, Christiana Kouta, Dwayne Meijnckens, Liubove Murauskiene, Maria Papadakaki, Lucia Ramiro, Marta Reis, Katrien Symons, Paulina Tomaszewska, Isabel Vicario-Molina, Andrzej Zygadlo
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