Chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow around PSI during photosynthesis and plant stress response
ABSTRACT Besides major photosynthetic complexes of oxygenic photosynthesis, new electron carriers have been identified in thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts. These minor components, located in the stroma lamellae, include a plastidial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex and a plastid terminal plastoquinone oxidase (PTOX). The NDH complex, by reducing plastoquinones (PQs), participates in one of the two electron transfer pathways operating around photosystem I (PSI), the other likely involving a still uncharacterized ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase (FQR) and the newly discovered PGR5. The existence of a complex network of mechanisms regulating expression and activity of the NDH complex, and the presence of higher amounts of NDH complex and PTOX in response to environmental stress conditions the phenotype of mutants, indicate that these components likely play a role in the acclimation of photosynthesis to changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published data, we propose that the NDH-dependent cyclic pathway around PSI participates to the ATP supply in conditions of high ATP demand (such as high temperature or water limitation) and together with PTOX regulates cyclic electron transfer activity by tuning the redox state of intersystem electron carriers. In response to severe stress conditions, PTOX associated to the NDH and/or the PGR5 pathway may also limit electron pressure on PSI acceptor and prevent PSI photoinhibition.
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ABSTRACT: Cotton is mostly cultivated under rain-fed conditions in India, thus faces frequent drought conditions during its life cycle. Drought being a major stress factor responsible for yield penalty, there has always been a high priority to generate knowledge on adaptation and tolerance of cotton. In the present study, four cotton varieties, JKC-770 and KC-2 (Gossypium hirsutum), and JKC-717 and RAHS-187(Gossypium herbaceum), were imposed to drought. Under drought condition, differential changes in physiological characters like net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (RWC), and predawn water potential (ψ 0) showed a change. While proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) content increased along with a concomitant change in the expression of their associated genes. Under moderate stress, tolerant varieties maintain lower ψ 0 probably due to higher proline content as compared to sensitive varieties. Cyclic electron flow (CEF) also plays an important role in tolerance under mild water stress in G. hirsutum varieties. CEF not only activates at high light but also initiates at a very low light intensity. Expression analysis of genes reveals that drought-tolerant varieties showed enhanced detoxifying mechanism by up-regulation of asparagine synthase (AS), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and methyl glyoxalase (GlyI) genes under drought stress. Up-regulation of Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase (Δ(1)P5CS) enhanced accumulation of proline, an osmolyte, under drought in tolerant varieties. While the drought-sensitive varieties showed up-regulation of ethylene responsive factor (ERF) and down-regulation of WRKY70 responsible for senescence of the leaf which correlated well with the high rate of leaf fall in sensitive varieties under water stress.Protoplasma 08/2014; 252(2). DOI:10.1007/s00709-014-0686-0 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) has been used for decades to study the organization, functioning, and physiology of photosynthesis at the leaf and subcellular levels. ChlF is now measurable from remote sensing platforms. This provides a new optical means to track photosynthesis and gross primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Importantly, the spatiotemporal and methodological context of the new applications is dramatically different compared with most of the available ChlF literature, which raises a number of important considerations. Although we have a good mechanistic understanding of the processes that control the ChlF signal over the short term, the seasonal link between ChlF and photosynthesis remains obscure. Additionally, while the current understanding of in vivo ChlF is based on pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) measurements, remote sensing applications are based on the measurement of the passive solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which entails important differences and new challenges that remain to be solved. In this review we introduce and revisit the physical, physiological, and methodological factors that control the leaf-level ChlF signal in the context of the new remote sensing applications. Specifically, we present the basis of photosynthetic acclimation and its optical signals, we introduce the physical and physiological basis of ChlF from the molecular to the leaf level and beyond, and we introduce and compare PAM and SIF methodology. Finally, we evaluate and identify the challenges that still remain to be answered in order to consolidate our mechanistic understanding of the remotely sensed SIF signal.Journal of Experimental Botany 05/2014; 65(15). DOI:10.1093/jxb/eru191 · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thylakoids of land plants have a bipartite structure, consisting of cylindrical grana stacks, made of membranous discs piled one on top of the other, and stroma lamellae which are helically wound around the cylinders. Protein complexes predominantly located in the stroma lamellae and grana end membranes are either bulky [photosystem I (PSI) and the chloroplast ATP synthase (cpATPase)] or are involved in cyclic electron flow [the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) and PGRL1-PGR5 heterodimers], whereas photosystem II (PSII) and its light-harvesting complex (LHCII) are found in the appressed membranes of the granum. Stacking of grana is thought to be due to adhesion between Lhcb proteins (LHCII or CP26) located in opposed thylakoid membranes. The grana margins contain oligomers of CURT1 proteins, which appear to control the size and number of grana discs in a dosage- and phosphorylation-dependent manner. Depending on light conditions, thylakoid membranes undergo dynamic structural changes that involve alterations in granum diameter and height, vertical unstacking of grana, and swelling of the thylakoid lumen. This plasticity is realized predominantly by reorganization of the supramolecular structure of protein complexes within grana stacks and by changes in multiprotein complex composition between appressed and non-appressed membrane domains. Reversible phosphorylation of LHC proteins (LHCPs) and PSII components appears to initiate most of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. An update on the roles of lipids, proteins, and protein complexes, as well as possible trafficking mechanisms, during thylakoid biogenesis and the de-etiolation process complements this review.Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2014; DOI:10.1093/jxb/eru090 · 5.79 Impact Factor