Chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow around PSI during photosynthesis and plant stress response.
ABSTRACT Besides major photosynthetic complexes of oxygenic photosynthesis, new electron carriers have been identified in thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts. These minor components, located in the stroma lamellae, include a plastidial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex and a plastid terminal plastoquinone oxidase (PTOX). The NDH complex, by reducing plastoquinones (PQs), participates in one of the two electron transfer pathways operating around photosystem I (PSI), the other likely involving a still uncharacterized ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase (FQR) and the newly discovered PGR5. The existence of a complex network of mechanisms regulating expression and activity of the NDH complex, and the presence of higher amounts of NDH complex and PTOX in response to environmental stress conditions the phenotype of mutants, indicate that these components likely play a role in the acclimation of photosynthesis to changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published data, we propose that the NDH-dependent cyclic pathway around PSI participates to the ATP supply in conditions of high ATP demand (such as high temperature or water limitation) and together with PTOX regulates cyclic electron transfer activity by tuning the redox state of intersystem electron carriers. In response to severe stress conditions, PTOX associated to the NDH and/or the PGR5 pathway may also limit electron pressure on PSI acceptor and prevent PSI photoinhibition.
- SourceAvailable from: Maureen R Hanson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In tobacco, 30 of 34 sites in chloroplast transcripts that undergo C-to-U RNA editing can be grouped into clusters of 2-5 sites based on sequence similarities immediately 5' to the edited C. According to a previous transgenic analysis, overexpression of transcripts representing one cluster member results in reduction in editing of all cluster members, suggesting that members of an individual cluster share a trans-factor that is present in limiting amounts. To compare leaves and roots, we quantified the editing extent at 34 sites in wild-type tobacco and at three sites in spinach and Arabidopsis. We observed that transcripts of most NADH dehydrogenase subunits are edited inefficiently in roots. With few exceptions, members of the same editing site cluster co-varied in editing extent in chloroplasts versus non-green root plastids, with members of most clusters uniformly exhibiting either a high or low editing extent in roots. The start codon of the ndhD transcript must be created by editing, but the C target is edited inefficiently in roots, and no NDH-D protein could be detected upon immunoblotting. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that cluster-specific trans-factors exist and that some are less abundant in roots, limiting the editing extent of certain sites in root plastids.Nucleic Acids Research 06/2003; 31(10):2586-94. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis thaliana, the chloroplast-targeted enzyme ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) exists as two isoforms, AtLFNR1 and AtLFNR2, encoded by the genes At5g66190 and At1g20020, respectively. Both isoforms are evenly distributed between the thylakoids and soluble stroma, and they are separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in four distinct spots, suggesting post-translational modification of both isoforms. To reveal the functional specificity of AtLFNR1, we have characterized the T-DNA insertion mutants with an interrupted At5g66190 gene. Absence of AtLFNR1 resulted in a reduced size of the rosette with pale green leaves, which was accompanied by a low content of chlorophyll and light-harvesting complex proteins. Also the photosystem I/photosystem II (PSI/PSII) ratio was significantly lower in the mutant, but the PSII activity, measured as the F(V)/F(M) ratio, remained nearly unchanged and the excitation pressure of PSII was lower in the mutants than in the wild type. A slow re-reduction rate of P700 measured in the mutant plants suggested that AtLFNR1 is involved in PSI-dependent cyclic electron flow. Impaired function of FNR also resulted in decreased capacity for carbon fixation, whereas nitrogen metabolism was upregulated. In the absence of AtLFNR1, we found AtLFNR2 exclusively in the stroma, suggesting that AtLFNR1 is required for membrane attachment of FNR. Structural modeling supports the formation of a AtLFNR1-AtLFNR2 heterodimer that would mediate the membrane attachment of AtLFNR2. Dimer formation, in turn, might regulate the distribution of electrons between the cyclic and linear electron transfer pathways according to environmental cues.The Plant Journal 04/2007; 49(6):1041-52. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) participates in the induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence when the rate of photosynthetic linear electron flow (LEF) is electron-acceptor limited. To test this hypothesis, the relationships among photosynthesis rate, electron fluxes through both PSI and PSII [Je(PSI) and Je(PSII)] and Chl fluorescence parameters were analyzed simultaneously in intact leaves of tobacco plants at several light intensities and partial pressures of ambient CO2 (Ca). At low light intensities, decreasing Ca lowered the photosynthesis rate, but Je(PSI) and Je(PSII) remained constant. Je(PSI) was larger than Je(PSII), indicating the existence of CEF-PSI. Increasing the light intensity enhanced photosynthesis and both Je(PSI) and Je (PSII). Je(PSI)/Je(PSII) also increased at high light and at high light and low Ca combined, showing a strong, positive relationship with NPQ of Chl fluorescence. These results indicated that CEF-PSI contributed to the dissipation of photon energy in excess of that consumed by photosynthesis by driving NPQ of Chl fluorescence. The main physiological function of CEF-PSI in photosynthesis of higher plants is discussed.Plant and Cell Physiology 05/2005; 46(4):629-37. · 4.13 Impact Factor