Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties, of 3-(4-hydroxyl)propanoic acid derivatives in high-cholesterol fed rats
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of two cinnamic acid synthetic derivatives (allyl 3-[4-hydroxyphenyl]propanoate; HPP304, 1-naphthyl-methyl 3-[4-hydroxyphenyl]propanoate; HPP305) in high-cholesterol fed rats and compare their actions to that of cinnamic acid. Cinnamic acid and its synthetic derivatives were supplemented with a high-cholesterol diet for 42 days at a dose of 0.135 mmol/100g of diet. The supplementation of HPP304 and HPP305 significantly lowered cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the plasma and liver with a simultaneous increase in the HDL-cholesterol concentration, whereas cinnamic acid only lowered the plasma cholesterol concentration. Cinnamic acid lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity in high-cholesterol fed rats, however, its synthetic derivatives (HPP304 and HPP305) did not affect HMG-CoA reductase activity compared to the control group. Instead, the HPP304 and HPP305 supplements significantly lowered hepatic acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and increased the fecal bile acid. The SOD activity of the erythrocytes and liver was not different between the groups, however, the activities of CAT and GSH-Px, and the level of GSH in the erythrocytes were significantly higher in the HPP304 and HPP305 groups than in the control group. On the other hand, the activities of CAT and GSH-Px, and the level of malondialdehyde in the liver were significantly lower in the HPP304 and HPP305 groups. The antioxidant activities of these cinnamic acid synthetic derivatives were similar to the cinnamic acid in the high-cholesterol fed rats. In addition, HPP304 and HPP305 lowered amniotransferase activity in the plasma. These results suggest that two cinnamic acid synthetic derivatives (HPP304 and HPP305) exert lipid-lowering action and antioxidant properties without hepatotoxicity in high-cholesterol fed rats.
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ABSTRACT: Atherogenic or high fat diets were known to induce cardiovascular diseases, and several active compounds were tested to protect/prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the cardio protective effect of resveratrol against atherogenic diet fed rats. Male Wistar rats were administered atherogenic diet for 30 days and further continued for 15 days with or with resveratrol in the diet. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid metabolic proteins and cardiac tissue markers were examined. The histopathology of myocardium and aorta were also examined. The abnormal serum lipid profile found in atherogenic rats was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Similarly, the enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase), non-enzymatic (reduced-glutathione, Vitamin C, E) antioxidants were improved by the resveratrol fed against atherogenic diet. Interestingly, resveratrol activated the lipid metabolic proteins (SIRT1, eNOS and AMPKa), suggesting its protective effect on lipid metabolism. Further analysis on tissue damage revealed that resveratrol had significantly protected the tissue damage and maintains the morphology of cardiac tissue. Altogether, our results suggest that resveratrol played a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular system against the high fat diet. Emphasising the anti-atherogenic property of resveratrol, we propose resveratrol as a potential compound to be consumed for the healthy life-style.
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ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. The current work, for the first time, accounts the antioxidant, genoprotective, antilipoperoxidative, and HMG-CoA reductase (EC 188.8.131.52) inhibitory properties of traditional medicinal plant, Ficus palmata Forsk. Our result showed that among sequentially extracted fractions of Ficus palmata Forsk, FPBA (F. palmata bark aqueous extract) and FPLM (F. palmata leaves methanolic extract) extracts have higher phenolic content and also exhibited significantly more radical scavenging (DPPH and Superoxide) and antioxidant (FRAP) capacity. Moreover, FPBA extract also exhibited significantly higher inhibition of lipid peroxidation assay. Additionally, results showed almost complete and partial protection of oxidatively damaged DNA by these plant extracts when compared to mannitol. Furthermore, our results showed that FPBA extract (IC50 = 9.1 ± 0.61 µg/mL) exhibited noteworthy inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity as compared to other extracts, which might suggest its role as cardioprotective agent. In conclusion, results showed that FPBA extract not only possess significant antioxidant and genoprotective property but also is able to attenuate the enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA reductase, which might suggest its role in combating various oxidative stress-related diseases, including atherosclerosis.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:762620. DOI:10.1155/2014/762620 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases are closely associated with a high-cholesterol or high-fat diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cadioprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in high-fat diet-fed rats, with special emphasis on myocardial infarction. A high-fat diet was administered to male Wistar rats for 45 days and the rats of the treatment group were administered EGCG via intraperitoneal injection for the last 15 days. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid metabolic proteins and cardiac tissue markers were assessed. The myocardium and aorta were also histopathologically examined. The high-fat diet-fed rats were found to be hypercholesterolemic or exhibited abnormal values in the selected parameters. However, these abnormalities were reversed to near-normal values in the rats administered EGCG. Similarly, the enzymatic antioxidant activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were improved with EGCG treatment in high-fat diet-fed rats. In addition, EGCG activated sirtuin 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase α, which suggests that its protective effect is mediated through the stimulation of lipid metabolism. The histopathological examination further revealed that EGCG significantly prevented the development of tissue abnormalities and improved the morphology of myocardial tissue. Taken together, our results suggested that EGCG plays a significant role in the protection of the cardiovascular system against the high-fat diet. This is a preliminary study, emphasizing on the cardioprotective properties of EGCG. We are currently analyzing the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of EGCG.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 02/2015; 9(2):405-410. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.2135 · 0.94 Impact Factor