Article

Expansion of the first PolyA tract of ARX causes infantile spasms and status dystonicus

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 08/2007; 69(5):427-33. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000266594.16202.c1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ARX is a paired-type homeobox gene located on the X chromosome that contains five exons with four polyalanine (PolyA) tracts, a homeodomain, and a conserved C-terminal aristaless domain. Studies in humans have demonstrated remarkable pleiotropy: malformation phenotypes are associated with protein truncation mutations and missense mutations in the homeobox; nonmalformation phenotypes, including X-linked infantile spasms (ISS), are associated with missense mutations outside of the homeobox and expansion of the PolyA tracts.
To investigate the role of ARX, we performed mutation analysis in 115 boys with cryptogenic ISS. This included two pairs of brothers.
We found an expansion of the trinucleotide repeat that codes for the first PolyA tract from 10 to 17 GCG repeats (c.333_334ins[GCG]7) in six boys (5.2%) ages 2 to 14, from four families, including the two pairs of brothers. In addition to ISS, all six boys had severe mental retardation and generalized dystonia that appeared around the age of 6 months and worsened, eventually leading to stable severe quadriplegic dyskinesia within age 2 years. Three children experienced recurrent, life-threatening status dystonicus. In four children brain MRI showed multiple small foci of abnormal cavitation on T1 and increased signal intensity on T2 in the putamina, possibly reflecting progressive multifocal loss of tissue.
The phenotype of infantile spasms with severe dyskinetic quadriparesis increases the number of human disorders that result from the pathologic expansion of single alanine repeats. ARX gene testing should be considered in boys with infantile spasms and dyskinetic cerebral palsy in the absence of a consistent perinatal history.

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    • "Table 4 compares the clinical features of this case with other patients identified with this expansion. Overall, data in Table 4 is compiled from 27 affected individuals and includes 8 de novo cases (Guerrini et al. 2007; Poirier et al. 2008; Shinozaki et al. 2008; Wallerstein et al. 2008; Absoud et al. 2009; Mirzaa et al. 2013), three cases of brother pairs (Guerrini et al. 2007; Cossee et al. 2011) two cases of families with maternal uncle–nephew pairs, one case of a pair of brothers and a maternal male cousin (Bruyere et al. 1999; Stromme et al. 2002a), and four cases without a family history (Mirzaa et al. 2013). There is only limited reporting of affected females in these families. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene is implicated in intellectual disability with the most frequent pathogenic mutations leading to expansions of the first two polyalanine tracts. Here, we describe analysis of the ARX gene outlining the approaches in the Australian and Portuguese setting, using an integrated clinical and molecular strategy. We report variants in the ARX gene detected in 19 patients belonging to 17 families. Seven pathogenic variants, being expansion mutations in both polyalanine tract 1 and tract 2, were identifyed, including a novel mutation in polyalanine tract 1 that expands the first tract to 20 alanines. This precise number of alanines is sufficient to cause pathogenicity when expanded in polyalanine tract 2. Five cases presented a probably non-pathogenic variant, including the novel HGVS: c.441_455del, classified as unlikely disease causing, consistent with reports that suggest that in frame deletions in polyalanine stretches of ARX rarely cause intellectual disability. In addition, we identified five cases with a variant of unclear pathogenic significance. Owing to the inconsistent ARX variants description, publications were reviewed and ARX variant classifications were standardized and detailed unambiguously according to recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society. In the absence of a pathognomonic clinical feature, we propose that molecular analysis of the ARX gene should be included in routine diagnostic practice in individuals with either nonsyndromic or syndromic intellectual disability. A definitive diagnosis of ARX-related disorders is crucial for an adequate clinical follow-up and accurate genetic counseling of at-risk family members.
    01/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.1002/mgg3.133
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    • "The mild cystic images observed in most ARX patients located just beneath the putamen have the signal characteristics of CSF on MRI (Hyper T2, Hypo T1 and FLAIR images) and represent most probably a simple enlargement of the Virshow-Robin spaces along the lenticulo-striatal vessels. Nevertheless, it is questionable that obvious prominent cysts were already described in the posterior putamen of patients carrying the c.333ins(GCG)7 in the first polyalanine tract of the ARX gene [14]. Moreover, neuropathologic studies of the brain in newborn males affected with the XLAG syndrome (lack of ARX protein) show poorly delineated and atrophic basal ganglia and multiple small cavitations [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The c.429_452dup24 of the ARX gene is a rare genetic anomaly, leading to X-Linked Intellectual Disability without brain malformation. While in certain cases c.429_452dup24 has been associated with specific clinical patterns such as Partington syndrome, the consequence of this mutation has been also often classified as "non-specific Intellectual Disability". The present work aims at a more precise description of the clinical features linked to the c.429_452dup24 mutation. We clinically reviewed all affected patients identified in France over a five-year period, i.e. 27 patients from 12 different families. Detailed cognitive, behavioural, and motor evaluation, as well as standardized videotaped assessments of oro-lingual and gestural praxis, were performed. In a sub-group of 13 ARX patients, kinematic and MRI studies were further accomplished to better characterize the motor impairment prevalent in the ARX patients group. To ensure that data were specific to the ARX gene mutation and did not result from low-cognitive functioning per se, a group of 27 age- and IQ-matched Down syndrome patients served as control. Neuropsychological and motor assessment indicated that the c.429_452dup24 mutation constitutes a recognizable clinical syndrome: ARX patients exhibiting Intellectual Disability, without primary motor impairment, but with a very specific upper limb distal motor apraxia associated with a pathognomonic hand-grip. Patients affected with the so-called Partington syndrome, which involves major hand dystonia and orolingual apraxia, exhibit the most severe symptoms of the disorder. The particular "reach and grip" impairment which was observed in all ARX patients, but not in Down syndrome patients, was further characterized by the kinematic data: (i) loss of preference for the index finger when gripping an object, (ii) major impairment of fourth finger deftness, and (iii) a lack of pronation movements. This lack of distal movement coordination exhibited by ARX patients is associated with the loss of independent digital dexterity and is similar to the distortion of individual finger movements and posture observed in Limb Kinetic Apraxia. These findings suggest that the ARX c.429_452dup24 mutation may be a developmental model for Limb Kinetic Apraxia.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 02/2014; 9(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-9-25 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    • "In human disease the first two polyalanine repeats that are most often expanded [10]. Patients with these expansion mutations present with severe neurologic phenotypes, including seizures and mental retardation, but without brain malformations [11]. Expansion of the first polyalanine tract by an additional seven alanines has been associated with West Syndrome or infantile spasms (ISSX) [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: ARX/Arx is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor necessary for the specification and early maintenance of pancreatic endocrine α-cells. Many transcription factors important to pancreas development, including ARX/Arx, are also crucial for proper brain development. Although null mutations of ARX in human patients result in the severe neurologic syndrome XLAG (X-linked lissencephaly associated with abnormal genitalia), the most common mutation is the expansion of the first polyalanine tract of ARX, which results primarily in the clinical syndrome ISSX (infantile spasms). Mouse models of XLAG, ISSX and other human ARX mutations demonstrate a direct genotype-phenotype correlation in ARX-related neurologic disorders. Furthermore, mouse models utilizing a polyalanine tract expansion mutation have illustrated critical developmental differences between null mutations and expansion mutations in the brain, revealing context-specific defects. Although Arx is known to be required for the specification and early maintenance of pancreatic glucagon-producing α-cells, the consequences of the Arx polyalanine expansion on pancreas development remain unknown. Here we report that mice with an expansion mutation in the first polyalanine tract of Arx exhibit impaired α-cell specification and maintenance, with gradual α-cell loss due to apoptosis. This is in contrast to the re-specification of α-cells into β- and δ-cells that occurs in mice null for Arx. Overall, our analysis of an Arx polyalanine expansion mutation on pancreatic development suggests that impaired α-cell function might also occur in ISSX patients.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78741. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078741 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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