Effect of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide, long-chain fructo-oligosaccharide infant formula on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels
ABSTRACT Cholesterol is a nutrient of essential importance in infant feeding because it is necessary in membrane development. In adults with high lipid levels, high doses of inulin (oligofructose) inconsistently decreased levels of serum cholesterol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in infants receiving a formula with a specific mixture of 0.6 g/100 mL of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) in a ratio of 9/1, a control formula, or breast milk. Because the level of lcFOS in the infant milk is low, we hypothesized that there would be no differences between the formula groups.
Two hundred fifteen infants were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial during the first 6 mo of life. Formula-fed infants were randomized to receive a standard infant formula with a specific mixture of 0.6 g/100 mL of GOS/lcFOS, in a ratio of 9/1, or a control formula. Breast-fed infants were randomized to receive one of these two formulas after the mother had decided to discontinue breastfeeding. Serum levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triacylglycerol were determined at 8 and 26 wk of age and were provided for infants who received the GOS/lcFOS formula or control formula from birth or after cessation of breastfeeding and for the subgroups that were fully fed with breast milk and formula.
One hundred eighty-seven infants completed the study. Total cholesterol and LDL levels at 8 and 26 wk were significantly lower in the formula-fed groups than in the breast-fed infants. There were no significant differences between the formula-fed groups. Levels of triacylglycerols and high-density lipoprotein did not differ between groups.
Our study demonstrated no differences in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in infants receiving an infant formula with GOS/lcFOS from infants receiving a control infant formula. Furthermore, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in breast-fed infants than in formula-fed infants.
- SourceAvailable from: Alfred Musekiwa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is little or no information available on the impact of funding by the food industry on trial outcomes and methodological quality of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics research in infants. The objective of this study was to compare the methodological quality, outcomes of food industry sponsored trials versus non industry sponsored trials, with regards to supplementation of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in infant formula. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify published and unpublished randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Cochrane methodology was used to assess the risk of bias of included RCTs in the following domains: 1) sequence generation; 2) allocation concealment; 3) blinding; 4) incomplete outcome data; 5) selective outcome reporting; and 6) other bias. Clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions were reported in frequencies and percentages. The association between source of funding, risk of bias, clinical outcomes and conclusions were assessed using Pearson's Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. Sixty seven completed and 3 on-going RCTs were included. Forty (59.7%) were funded by food industry, 11 (16.4%) by non-industry entities and 16 (23.9%) did not specify source of funding. Several risk of bias domains, especially sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, were not adequately reported. There was no significant association between the source of funding and sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and selective reporting, majority of reported clinical outcomes or authors' conclusions. On the other hand, source of funding was significantly associated with the domains of incomplete outcome data, free of other bias domains as well as reported antibiotic use and conclusions on weight gain. In RCTs on infants fed infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics, the source of funding did not influence the majority of outcomes in favour of the sponsors' products. More non-industry funded research is needed to further assess the impact of funding on methodological quality, reported clinical outcomes and authors' conclusions.BMC Medical Research Methodology 11/2013; 13(1):137. DOI:10.1186/1471-2288-13-137 · 2.17 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since introduction of functional foods, commercialization of the traditionally used probiotics has ushered in more followers into the new fraternity of sophisticated, health-conscious consumers. In 1995, this was followed by the first introduction of prebiotics. Prebiotics are defined as "a non-digestible feed supplement, beneficially affecting the host by selectively stimulating growth and/or activity in one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon." The number of new product introductions with prebiotics has steeply increased over the last few years. Paradoxically, probiotics have limited applications as these cannot be used in wide range of food products because of their viability issue. Fortunately, prebiotics do not suffer from any such constraint and can be used in a wide range of food products. Probiotics do not have a long shelf life in their active form. In most cases, refrigeration is required to maintain the shelf life. While probiotics are predominantly used in fermented dairy products, the use of prebiotics has expanded into other food categories. Prebiotics have successfully been incorporated in a wide variety of human food products such as baked goods, sweeteners, yoghurts, nutrition bars, and meal replacement shakes. For instance, the introduction of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) into baby foods has been very successful. GOS, which are identical to the human milk oligosaccharides, has emerged with strong clinical support for both digestive and immune health. Various aspects related to GOS such as types and functions of functional food constituents with special reference to GOS, their role as prebiotics, and enhanced industrial production through microbial intervention are dealt in this review.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This work is aimed at evaluating the physicochemical, physical, chromatic, microbiological, and sensorial stability of a non-dairy dessert elaborated with soy, guava juice, and oligofructose for 60 days at refrigerated storage as well as to estimate its shelf life time. The titrable acidity, pH, instrumental color, water activity, ascorbic acid, and physical stability were measured. Panelists (n = 50) from the campus community used a hedonic scale to assess the acceptance, purchase intent, creaminess, flavor, taste, acidity, color, and overall appearance of the dessert during 60 days. The data showed that the parameters differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the initial time, and they could be fitted in mathematical equations with coefficient of determination above 71%, aiming to consider them suitable for prediction purposes. Creaminess and acceptance did not differ statistically in the 60-day period; taste, flavor, and acidity kept a suitable hedonic score during storage. Notwithstanding, the sample showed good physical stability against gravity and presented more than 15% of the Brazilian Daily Recommended Value of copper, iron, and ascorbic acid. The product shelf life estimation found was 79 days considering the overall acceptance, acceptance index and purchase intent.Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 09/2010; 30(3):797-807. DOI:10.1590/S0101-20612010000300036 · 0.41 Impact Factor