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Available from: Julio Guerrero Fernández, Feb 06, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-two adrenocortical neoplasms in children and adolescents were evaluated for prognostic factors including clinical and morphological parameters and DNA ploidy. The patients were segregated into two groups according to clinical outcome: group A, represented by patients with clinically benign neoplasms (n = 15), and group B, patients with clinically malignant tumors as evidenced by local recurrence, metastases, or fatal outcome (n = 17). Clinical and morphological parameters in these two groups were evaluated using appropriate statistical methods. Parameters with a significant predictive value in terms of prognosis were age [p = .04], tumor size (p = .0003), median tumor weight (p = .0001), mitotic count (p = 0.04), and 25% tumor necrosis or more (p = .03). Twenty-three cases were studied for DNA ploidy: 10 cases by image analysis and 13 by both image analysis and flow cytometry. By ploidy analysis, 17 of 23 cases—12 of 14 in group A and 5 of 9 in group B—were found to be aneuploid. Multiple aneuploid peaks were found in 5 of 23 cases—4 of 14 cases in group A and 1 of 9 cases in group B. In tumors studied by both image analysis and flow cytometry, there was no discrepancy between results of ploidy analysis. There was no statistically significant association demonstrated between clinical outcome and DNA ploidy pattern. DNA ploidy heterogeneity, characterized by multiple aneuploid populations of cells, was also detected in both benign and malignant neoplasms. Based on our results, aneuploidy is relatively frequent in pediatrie adrenocortical tumors and does not appear to have predictive value for biological behavior.
    Endocrine Pathology 09/1992; 3(3):116-128. DOI:10.1007/BF02921352 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a very rare tumor in children in the United States, is apparently more common among Brazilian children. We reviewed the medical records of 40 children whose disease was diagnosed between 1966 and 1987. There were 12 boys and 28 girls; their median age was 3.9 years (range, 1 day to 15.7 years). Virilization was the most common clinical sign (37 of 40); other signs included abdominal mass, deepened voice, plethora, hypertension, seizures (seven patients) and, rarely, weight loss (two patients). The median time between first signs or symptoms and diagnosis was 1.4 years (range, 3 days to 5 years). Four of 33 tumors were classified as benign according to the Weiss, van Slooten, or Hough systems (tumor tissue was unavailable for seven patients). Tumors were completely resected in 26 of 38 patients; of those, 17 are in continuous complete remission, five relapsed, and four have been lost to follow-up. One patient, who had local recurrence, has been in a third complete remission for 18+ months after tumor resection and chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide). Of the remaining 14 patients, 11 died of progressive disease, the diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy in two, and one has been lost to follow-up. Univariate analysis disclosed that age greater than or equal to 3.5 years at diagnosis, interval of greater than or equal to 6 months between first symptoms and diagnosis, tumor weight greater than 100 g, tumor size greater than 200 cm3, and high levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OH) were associated with an unfavorable outcome. Multivariate analysis disclosed that only a tumor size greater than 200 cm3 independently identifies those patients with an unfavorable prognosis. Among the variables known before surgery, age, and the interval between first symptoms and diagnosis were important predictors of outcome. Our data suggest that some children with ACC and certain clinical characteristics are at high risk of primary treatment failure and, therefore, are good candidates for investigational adjuvant therapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/1990; 8(1):67-74. · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The experience with adrenocortical neoplasms in childhood is reviewed. During three decades, ten children with adrenocortical neoplasms were seen at the authors' institution. The literature was reviewed, and 209 patients 16.5 years or younger were found. All ten patients at Vanderbilt University Hospital (VUH) presented with endocrine manifestations of the tumor. Three patients had Cushing's, two patients had virilization, and five patients had features of both. In the literature, virilization, alone or with Cushing's, was the most common mode of presentation. Feminizing tumors were uncommon and nonfunctional tumors rare. The majority of patients were female. Features associated with malignancy included 17-KS levels greater than 40 mg/24 hr, diameter greater than 6 cm, weight greater than 500 g, and histologic evidence of diffuse growth pattern, vascular invasion, and tumor cell necrosis. Although uncommon, adrenocortical neoplasms should be suspected in children with Cushing's, virilization, feminization, or a combination of these. There has been an increased incidence reported in patients with hemihypertrophy, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, hemangiomas, and nevi. Following endocrinologic evaluation, imaging studies should be performed. CT scan appears to be the most useful diagnostic tool. A posterior operative approach is recommended for suspected adenomas. An anterior thoracoabdominal approach is favored for suspected malignancies with uncompromised en bloc resection. There is no evidence that adjuvant therapy provides any additional benefit.
    The American surgeon 04/1987; 53(3):117-25. · 0.92 Impact Factor