Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings in a case of canine idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis.
ABSTRACT A case of idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in a six-month-old male Maremma shepherd dog is reported. The dog was referred with a four month history of progressive weakness and depression with loss of trained habits. Tendency to recumbency, disorientation, visual impairment, bilaterally decreased menace response and hindlimb conscious proprioception deficits were detected. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a diffuse hypointense signal involving the cerebral grey matter with enlargement of the cerebral sulci on T1-weighted and fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences consistent with a diffuse necrosis or atrophy of the cortical grey matter. Histological examination revealed severe inflammatory infiltration mainly composed of eosinophils and macrophages in the subarachnoid space and in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex where parenchymal rarefaction and necrosis of neurones were also evident. No parasites, cysts or fungi were detected, and an immunologically mediated disorder was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging may represent a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from other inflammatory brain diseases of young dogs.
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ABSTRACT: Several in vitro studies suggest that eosinophils may play a role in fibrosis, remodeling, and repair processes associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. However, the relationship in vivo, between allergen-induced tissue eosinophilia and markers of repair has yet to be established in human atopic subjects. Using the allergen-induced cutaneous late-phase reaction as a model of allergic inflammation, we have tested the hypothesis that eosinophil-derived TGF-beta1 and IL-13 are temporarily associated with myofibroblast formation and deposition of tenascin and procollagen I. Biopsies were taken from atopic volunteers at 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after intradermal allergen challenge and were examined by immunohistochemistry. Following the peak of the late-phase reaction (6 h) there were persisting TGF-beta1(+) eosinophils, alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) myofibroblasts, tenascin immunoreactivity, and procollagen-I(+) cells 24-48 h postchallenge. Direct evidence of generation of repair markers was obtained by coculture of eosinophils and fibroblasts. This resulted in alpha-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity that was inhibitable by neutralizing Abs to TGF-beta as well as production of tenascin transcripts and protein product. TGF-beta1 and IL-13 also induced tenascin expression. We conclude that TGF-beta1 and IL-13, provided partially by eosinophils, contribute to repair and remodeling events in allergic inflammation in human atopic skin.The Journal of Immunology 11/2002; 169(8):4604-12. · 5.52 Impact Factor
Article: Inflammatory myopathies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myopathies are the result of infiltration of inflammatory cells into striated muscle, with or without an association with an underlying cause. Two broad classifications are IIMs and secondary inflammatory myopathies associated with other diseases. Standard diagnostic criteria for inflammatory myopathy include the presence of weakness or loss of specific muscle group function, an increase in CK, EMG changes associated with muscle membrane instability, and histologic evidence of inflammation. Not all these criteria, however, must be present. Fresh-frozen biopsy from two proximal muscles is recommended for biopsy confirmation. IIM can either focally affect head or neck muscles or be more diffuse. MMM is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a humoral antibody produced against the unique type IIM and type I variant mvofibers of masticatory muscles of dogs, which causes inflammation and loss of function of the muscles of mastication. Idiopathic polymyositis can affect focal muscle groups (extraocular, laryngeal) or present as multifocal or diffuse involvement of skeletal muscle in the cat and dog. Familial canine DM is an inflammatory disease of the striated muscle, skin, and vasculature in young Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs (Shelties), and, rarely, Collie-crossbred dogs. Immunosuppressive therapy is the key to successful treatment. Protozoal parasitic myopathies are the most common cause of clinically relevant secondary inflammatory myopathies. The degree of systemic involvement is often the limiting factor to successful treatment. Early recognition of the clinical signs for proper diagnostic testing and institution of appropriate therapy can result in a rewarding outcome in treating inflammatory myopathies in the cat and dog.Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 02/2002; 32(1):147-67. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia.Veterinary Pathology 04/1981; 18(2):188-200. · 1.93 Impact Factor