Microarray gene expression profiling for predicting complete response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced rectal cancer.
ABSTRACT Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is widely used to improve local control and sphincter preservation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether microarray gene expression analysis could predict complete response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.
Tumor tissues were obtained from 46 patients with rectal cancer (31 for training and 15 for validation testing). All patients underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy involving 50.4 gray radiotherapy, followed by surgical excision 6 weeks later. Response to chemoradiotherapy was evaluated according to Dworak's tumor regression grade. Tumor regression Grades 1, 2, and 3 were considered partial responses, and tumor regression Grade 4 was considered a complete response. By using the 31 training samples, genes differentially expressed between partial response and complete response were identified, and clustering analysis was performed. Prediction analysis of response to chemoradiotherapy was performed on the 31 training samples by using a selected set of 95 "predictor" genes. Those findings were validated by independent analysis of the 15 test samples.
The 31 training samples comprised 20 partial response and 11 complete response cases. A primary set of 261 genes was identified as differentiating between partial response and complete response. By supervised clustering using these 261 genes, 30 of 31 training samples were clustered correctly according to tumor response. A gene set comprising the top-ranked 95 genes displaying differential expression between partial response and complete response was applied to predict response to chemoradiotherapy. Complete response and partial response were accurately predicted in 84 percent (26/31) of training samples and 87 percent (13/15) of validation samples.
Microarray gene expression analysis was successfully used to predict complete responses to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced rectal cancer.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated p53 and its downstream effectors p21WAF1/CIP1, BAX, and hMSH2 as well as the proliferation marker Ki-67 (mki-67/MIB-1) in patients undergoing preoperative radiochemotherapy for rectal carcinoma to identify prognostic and predictive factors. The focus of this study was on the dynamics of these genetic markers in a longitudinal study-that is, before and after radiochemotherapy. Expression of p53, BAX, p21WAF1/CIP1, Ki-67, and hMSH2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry in pre- and posttherapeutic tumor samples in 66 patients. Tumor DNA was screened for p53 mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSCP-PCR). Paired tumor samples (pretherapy and posttherapy) were collected prospectively. Patients with a decrease in p21 expression following radiochemotherapy had better disease-free survival (P =.03). Similarly, patients with an increase in proliferative activity as measured by increased Ki-67 expression posttherapy had better disease-free survival (P <.005). In addition, we observed a significantly better prognosis for patients with high hMSH2 expression. In contrast, pretherapeutic levels of p53, BAX, or p21 expression and p53 mutation had no prognostic value, indicating that the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy might override defects in these genes. These findings are novel and support the clinical relevance of p21 in the suppression of both proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, the dynamic induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with a lower proliferative activity but an ultimately worse treatment outcome following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and tumor resection. Induction of p21, therefore, represents a novel resistance mechanism in rectal cancer undergoing preoperative radiochemotherapy.Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2003; 21(18):3391-401. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether selected clinicopathologic factors, including the extent of pathologic response to preoperative radiation and chemotherapy (RT +/- chemo), have an impact on long-term recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with locally advanced primary rectal cancer after optimal multimodality therapy. Although complete pathologic response to preoperative RT +/- chemo has been detected in up to 30% of rectal cancers, its significance on long-term outcome has not been widely reported. Previous retrospective studies evaluating clinical outcome in patients with complete or near-complete pathologic response documented good prognosis in this population but were limited by median follow-up in the range of 2 to 3 years. Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced (T(3-4) and/or N1) primary rectal cancer were prospectively identified. All were treated at one institution with preoperative RT to the pelvis (at least 4,500 cGy). Forty patients received concurrent preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and 27 received both pre- and postoperative chemotherapy. Patients underwent resection 4 to 7 weeks after completion of RT. TNM stage, angiolymphatic or perineural invasion, and extent of response to preoperative RT +/- chemo were determined by pathologic evaluation. Adverse pathologic features were defined as the presence of angiolymphatic and/or perineural invasion. RFS at 5 years was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. With a median follow-up of 69 months, 5-year RFS was 79%. RFS was significantly worse for patients with aggressive pathologic features and positive nodal status identified in the postirradiated surgical specimen. Risk ratios for RFS were 3.68 for the presence of aggressive pathologic features and 4.64 for node-positive rectal cancers. In patients with greater than 95% rectal cancer response to preoperative RT +/- chemo, only one patient has died as a consequence of cancer, another has died of an unrelated cause, and the remainder were free of disease with a minimum follow-up of 47 months. These data suggest that a marked response to preoperative RT +/- chemo may be associated with good long-term outcome but was not predictive of RFS. The presence of poor histopathologic features and positive nodal status are the most important prognostic indicators after neoadjuvant therapy.Annals of Surgery 08/2002; 236(1):75-81. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours about which little is known biologically, and whose diagnosis, on the basis of morphologic appearance alone, is controversial. Medulloblastomas, for example, are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood, but their pathogenesis is unknown, their relationship to other embryonal CNS tumours is debated, and patients' response to therapy is difficult to predict. We approached these problems by developing a classification system based on DNA microarray gene expression data derived from 99 patient samples. Here we demonstrate that medulloblastomas are molecularly distinct from other brain tumours including primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) and malignant gliomas. Previously unrecognized evidence supporting the derivation of medulloblastomas from cerebellar granule cells through activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway was also revealed. We show further that the clinical outcome of children with medulloblastomas is highly predictable on the basis of the gene expression profiles of their tumours at diagnosis.Nature 02/2002; 415(6870):436-42. · 38.60 Impact Factor