Antiglycation and antioxidant effect of carnosine against glucose degradation products in peritoneal mesothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Toxicity with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major problem in uremic patients. Treatment with peritoneal dialysis (PD) exacerbates AGE formation as a result of bioincompatibility of the conventional peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). The presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs) in PDF is the main cause of its bioincompatibility. Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide with a powerful antiglycation/antioxidant activity. In an attempt to improve PDF biocompatibility, we evaluated the effect of carnosine in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) incubated with PDF or GDPs in vitro.
HPMC were incubated for short or prolonged time with PDF in the presence or absence of carnosine. Similarly, HPMC were incubated in the same condition but with a combination of GDPs. Following the incubation, cells were tested for their viability, protein carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
Results demonstrated a significant protective effect of carnosine to HPMC in both acute and chronic conditions with PDF or GDPs as judged by the enhancement of cell viability, preserved protein from modification and decreased ROS production.
Carnosine enhanced HPMC viability against the toxic effect of GDPs probably through protection of cellular protein from modification and from ROS-mediated oxidative damage. The salutary effect of carnosine may render it a desirable candidate for improving PDF biocompatibility and reducing AGE complications in PD patients.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of blood meal (BM) as a source of histidine, and magnesium oxide (MgO) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase, on carnosine (L-Car) content in the chicken breast muscle (CBM), laying performance, and egg quality of spent old hens. Four hundred eighty laying hens (Hy-Line Brown), 95wk old, were allotted randomly into five replicates of six dietary treatments: T1; 100% basal diet, T2; 100% basal diet+MgO, T3; 97.5% basal diet+2.5% BM, T4; 97.5% basal diet+2.5% BM+MgO, T5; 95% basal diet+5% BM, T6; 95% basal diet+5% BM+MgO. Magnesium oxide was added at 0.3% of diets. The layers were fed experimental diets for 5wk. There were no significant differences in the weekly L-Car content in CBM among all treatments during the total experimental period, but some of the contrast comparisions showed higher L-Car in CBM of T6. The L-Car contents linearly decreased (pAsian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 07/2010; 23(7). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2010.10032 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) was discovered in 1900 as an abundant non-protein nitrogen-containing compound of meat. The dipeptide is not only found in skeletal muscle, but also in other excitable tissues. Most animals, except humans, also possess a methylated variant of carnosine, either anserine or ophidine/balenine, collectively called the histidine-containing dipeptides. This review aims to decipher the physiological roles of carnosine, based on its biochemical properties. The latter include pH-buffering, metal-ion chelation, and antioxidant capacity as well as the capacity to protect against formation of advanced glycation and lipoxidation end-products. For these reasons, the therapeutic potential of carnosine supplementation has been tested in numerous diseases in which ischemic or oxidative stress are involved. For several pathologies, such as diabetes and its complications, ocular disease, aging, and neurological disorders, promising preclinical and clinical results have been obtained. Also the pathophysiological relevance of serum carnosinase, the enzyme actively degrading carnosine into l-histidine and β-alanine, is discussed. The carnosine system has evolved as a pluripotent solution to a number of homeostatic challenges. l-Histidine, and more specifically its imidazole moiety, appears to be the prime bioactive component, whereas β-alanine is mainly regulating the synthesis of the dipeptide. This paper summarizes a century of scientific exploration on the (patho)physiological role of carnosine and related compounds. However, far more experiments in the fields of physiology and related disciplines (biology, pharmacology, genetics, molecular biology, etc.) are required to gain a full understanding of the function and applications of this intriguing molecule.Physiological Reviews 10/2013; 93(4):1803-45. DOI:10.1152/physrev.00039.2012 · 29.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a fatal complication that can occur in patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by bowel obstruction and marked sclerotic thickening of the peritoneal membrane. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of EPS are complex, angiogenesis, inflammation, and peritoneal fibrosis are known to be essential factors. Now, several animal models that exhibit EPS have pathophysiology similar to that of human EPS and have been proposed for use in research to provide insights into it. Recent histochemical methods also help us to understand the pathophysiology of EPS. Advances in basic research based on the findings in those animal models have enabled the development of several strategies for the prevention and treatment of EPS. We describe here interventional studies in some animal models for peritoneal fibrosis, one of the histological disorders findings characteristic to EPS, and we highlight the need for a sophisticated animal model that closely resembles human conditions.Acta histochemica et cytochemica official journal of the Japan Society of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 08/2014; 47(4):133-43. DOI:10.1267/ahc.14025 · 1.22 Impact Factor