Neuronal markers in allergic rhinitis: expression and correlation with sensory testing.
ABSTRACT Although the role of immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in allergic rhinitis is well known, the relative contribution of sensory nerves to the symptoms of rhinitis is uncertain. This study looked at the level of specific neuronal markers including the nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), sensory and autonomic neuropeptides, the capsaicin/heat receptor TRPV1, and nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with allergic rhinitis and controls and their correlation with nasal sensitivity.
Forty patients (23 controls, 17 rhinitis) having nasal surgery were recruited. Nasal sensitivity was tested using graded monofilaments. Inferior turbinate biopsies were collected and studied using immunohistology, with measurement of nerve fibers by direct observation or computerized image analysis.
Nerve fibers (PGP 9.5) in the epithelium, subepithelium, and glandular/vascular regions were significantly increased in allergic rhinitis (P=.037, <.01, and .04, respectively), as were subepithelial and glandular/vascular fibers immunoreactive for neuropeptide substance P (P=.04 subepithelium; .02 glandular/vascular) and neuropeptide tyrosine (P<.01 glandular/vascular), markers for sensory and sympathetic nerves, respectively. TRPV1 epithelial fiber counts were higher in rhinitis, but this was not statistically significant. Epithelial NGF immunoreactivity (% area) was significantly increased in rhinitis (P=.027). Nasal sensitivity was correlated significantly with PGP 9.5 subepithelial innervation (control touch P=.023, irritation P=.046; rhinitis touch P=.042, irritation P=.043). A correlation was also observed between epithelial NGF and subepithelial PGP 9.5 innervation, which included all subjects (P=.044).
The increased number and specific phenotypical changes of sensory nerves may play a role in nasal hypersensitivity and provide new targets for the treatment of rhinitis.
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ABSTRACT: Although older people varied widely in tactile sensitivity, our results show that tactile thresholds increased with age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on nasal tactile sensitivity. A total of 160 healthy patients aged between 50 and 90 years were included. According to their age, patients were divided into groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). From the age of 50, each group included subjects with an age range of 5 years (i.e. group A, 50-55 years; group B, 56-60 years, etc.). Each patient's outcome was assessed through the nasal monofilament test: a set of 20 Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments was used to detect nasal sensitivity for both nasal cavities. The sensitivity threshold was recorded as the minimum monofilament size from which patients could detect at least two of three stimuli. In groups D (66-70 years), E (71-75 years), F (76-80 years), G (81-85 years), and H (86-90 years) a significantly (p < 0.05) higher stimulus (171.1 ± 0.34 mg vs 67.7 mg, 167.01 ± 0.31 mg 67.7 mg, 166.54 ± 0.28 mg 67.7 mg, 201.24 ± 0.43 mg 67.7 mg, 165,87 ± 0.27 mg 67.7 mg) was required to trigger a touch response in the monofilament test.Acta oto-laryngologica 10/2010; 130(12):1389-93. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: These preliminary data show a decrease in nasal tactile sensitivity and point out interesting aspects of the nasal chronic inflammatory condition in allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of allergic rhinitis on nasal tactile sensitivity during the intercritical period. A total of 70 patients aged between 18 and 67 years (average 42 years), with a positive history of allergy caused by seasonal outdoor allergens, were included (group A). Patient outcome was assessed by the nasal monofilament test: a set of 20 Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments was used to detect nasal sensitivity for both nasal cavities. The sensitivity threshold was recorded as the minimum monofilament size with which patients could detect at least two of three stimuli. When compared to the control group (group B), subjects in group A required a significantly (p < 0.05) higher stimulus to trigger a touch response in the monofilament test, for both the inferior (195.1 ± 0.39 mg vs 67.7 ± 0.19 mg) and middle turbinate (108.7 ± 0.23 mg vs 67.7 ± 0.19 mg).Acta oto-laryngologica 03/2011; 131(6):640-4. · 0.98 Impact Factor