Evaluation of a workplace HIV treatment programme in South Africa
ABSTRACT To review the experience of implementing a workplace HIV care programme in South Africa and describe treatment outcomes in sequential cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy (ART).
A review of an industrial HIV care and treatment programme. Between October 2002 and December 2005, 2262 patients enrolled in the HIV care programme.
CD4 cell counts increased by a median of 90, 113 and 164 cells/microl by 6, 12 and 24 months on treatment, respectively. The viral load was suppressed below 400 copies/ml in 75, 72 and 72% of patients at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively, at an average cost of US$1654, 3567 and 7883 per patient virally suppressed, respectively. Treatment outcomes in sequential cohorts of patients were consistent over time. A total of 93.6% of patients at 14,752 clinic visits reported missing no tablets over the previous 3 days. Almost half the patients (46.8%) experienced one or more adverse events, although most were mild (78.7%). By the end of December 2005, 30% of patients were no longer on ART, mostly because of defaulted or stopped treatment (12.8%), termination of employment (8.2%), or death (4.9%).
This large workplace programme achieved virological results among individuals retained in the programme comparable to those reported for developed countries; more work is needed to improve retention. Monitoring treatment outcomes in sequential cohorts is a useful way of monitoring programme performance. As the programme has matured, the costs of programme implementation have reduced. Counselling is a central component of an ART programme. Challenges in implementing a workplace ART programme are similar to the challenges of public-sector programmes.
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ABSTRACT: In order to sustainably scale-up antiretroviral treatment (ART), South Africa needs to develop an efficient and effective implementation strategy, based on the best available scientific evidence. This article aims to bridge this knowledge gap first by describing the progress South Africa has made in the fight against HIV/AIDS in terms of virological efficacy, survival rates and retention in care, and second by identifying the potential remaining impediments to a durable and sustainable policy response to the epidemic. The study findings demonstrate that, despite favorable results in terms of virologic suppression, survival/mortality and retention in care, four challenges to a sustainable ART scale-up remain: first, the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; second, the growing need for comprehensive HIV/AIDS care; third, the rising costs associated with the growing case load of people; and fourth, the crippling shortage in human resources for healthcare.Future Virology 07/2011; 6(7):801-812. DOI:10.2217/fvl.11.56 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been widely available in Ghana since 2004. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the incidences of death, AIDS-defining events and non-AIDS defining events and associated risk factors amongst patients initiating cART in a large treatment centre. Clinical and laboratory data were extracted from clinic and hospital case notes for patients initiating cART between 2004 and 2010 and clinical events graded according to recognised definitions for AIDS, non-AIDS events (NADE) and death, with additional events not included in such definitions such as malaria also included. The cumulative incidence of events was calculated using Kaplan Meier analysis, and association of risk factors with events by Cox proportional hazards regression. Data were closed for analysis on 31st December, 2011 after a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 0-90 months). Amongst 4,039 patients starting cART at a median CD4 count of 133 cells/mm3, there were 324 (8%) confirmed deaths, with an event rate of 28.83 (95% CI 25.78-32.15) deaths per 1000-person follow-up years; the commonest established causes were pulmonary TB and gastroenteritis. There were 681 AIDS-defining events (60.60 [56.14-65.33] per 1000 person years) with pulmonary TB and chronic diarrhoea being the most frequent causes. Forty-one NADEs were recorded (3.64 [2.61-4.95] per 1000 person years), of which hepatic and cardiovascular events were most common. Other common events recorded outside these definitions included malaria (746 events) and respiratory tract infections (666 events). Overall 24% of patients were lost-to-follow-up. Alongside expected risk factors, stavudine use was associated with AIDS [adjusted HR of 1.08 (0.90-1.30)] and death (adjusted HR of 1.60 [1.21-2.11]). Whilst frequency of AIDS and deaths in this cohort were similar to those described in other sub-Saharan African cohorts, rates of NADEs were lower and far exceeded by events such as malaria and respiratory tract infections.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111400. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111400 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To explore client and provider experiences and related health outcomes of sexual and reproductive health interventions that have been led by or that have involved mining companies. Miners, and those living in communities surrounding mines in developing countries, are a vulnerable population with a high sexual and reproductive health burden. People in these communities require specific healthcare services although the exact delivery needs are unclear. There are no systematic reviews of evidence to guide delivery of sexual and reproductive health interventions to best address the needs of men and women in mining communities. A narrative synthesis. A search of peer-reviewed literature from 2000-2012 was undertaken with retrieved documents assessed using an inclusion/exclusion criterion and quality appraisal guided by critical assessment tools. Concepts were analysed thematically. A desire for HIV testing and treatment was associated with the recognition of personal vulnerability, but this was affected by fear of stigma. Regular on-site services facilitated access to voluntary counselling and testing and HIV care, but concerns for confidentiality were a serious barrier. The provision of HIV and sexually transmitted infection clinical and promotive services revealed mixed health outcomes. Recommended service improvements included rapid HIV testing, the integration of sexual and reproductive health into regular health services also available to family members and culturally competent, ethical, providers who are better supported to involve consumers in health promotion. There is a need for research to better inform health interventions so that they build on local cultural norms and values and address social needs. A holistic approach to sexual and reproductive health beyond a focus on HIV may better engage community members, mining companies and governments in healthcare delivery. Nurses may require appropriate workplace support and incentives to deliver sexual and reproductive health interventions in developing mining contexts where task shifting exists.Journal of Clinical Nursing 12/2013; 22(23-24):3597-609. DOI:10.1111/jocn.12191 · 1.23 Impact Factor