Induction of apoptosis by sanguinarine in C6 rat glioblastoma cells is associated with the modulation of the Bcl-2 family and activation of caspases through downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt.
ABSTRACT Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that is derived from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis and other poppy fumaria species, and is known to have antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study investigated the possible mechanisms through which sanguinarine exerts its antiproliferative action in cultured C6 rat glioblastoma cells. The exposure of C6 cells to sanguinarine resulted in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by the MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis and annexin-V-based assay. The sanguinarine treatment induced the proteolytic activation of caspases and ICAD/DFF45, which was associated with the modulation of the Bcl-2 family, concomitant degradation of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase and phospholipase C-gamma1 protein, and DNA fragmentation. z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, blocked poly(ADP ribose) polymerase degradation, DNA fragmentation and increased the survival rate of sanguinarine-treated C6 cells. Moreover, the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt was downregulated in sanguinarine-treated cells, and PD98059, a specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmanin, sensitized the cells to sanguinarine-induced apoptosis, indicating that the downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt signaling pathway may play a key role in sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in C6 cells.
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ABSTRACT: Interaction of the iminium and alkanolamine forms of sanguinarine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was characterized by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. Formation of strong complexes of BSA with both iminium and alkanolamine forms was revealed from fluorescence quenching of sanguinarine. Binding parameters calculated from Stern-Volmer quenching method revealed that the neutral alkanolamine had higher affinity to BSA compared to the charged iminium form. Specific binding distances of 3.37 and 2.38 nm between Trp 212 (donor) and iminium and alkanolamine forms (acceptor), respectively, were obtained from Forster resonance energy transfer studies. Competitive binding using the site markers warfarin and ibuprofen, having definite binding sites, demonstrated that both forms of sanguinarine bind to site I (subdomain IIA) on BSA. Sanguinarine binding alters protein conformation by reducing the α-helical organization and increasing the coiled structure, indicating a small but definitive partial unfolding of the protein. Thermodynamic parameters evaluated from isothermal titration calorimetry suggested that the binding was enthalpy driven for the iminium form but favoured by negative enthalpy and strong favourable entropy contributions for the alkanolamine form, revealing the involvement of different molecular forces in the complexation. The results suggest that the neutral alkanolamine form binds to the protein more favourably compared to the charged iminium, in stark contrast to the reported DNA binding preference of sanguinarine.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18333. · 4.09 Impact Factor