Prognostic significance of isolated HMB45 or Melan A positive cells in Melanoma sentinel lymph nodes.
ABSTRACT The detection of micrometastases (defined as groups of malignant cells) in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is an important prognostic tool in melanoma. The use of immunohistochemistry with melanocytic markers such as HMB45 and Melan A increases the detection rate of micrometastases but there are also cases with isolated immunohistochemically positive cells (IPC). To determine the prognostic significance of isolated HMB45 and/or Melan A positive cells in melanoma SLN, we compared the clinical course of 47 patients with IPC to 308 patients with negative SLN and to 122 patients with micrometastases. The mean follow-up was 38.1 months. By Kaplan-Meier analyses, relapse free survival and overall survival of patients with IPC were similar to SLN negative patients, whereas patients with micrometastases had a significantly worse relapse free survival and overall survival. In the 47 patients with IPC, 6 relapses (12.8%) and 3 melanoma-related death (6.4%) occurred, in the SLN negative patients 36 relapses (11.7%) and 17 melanoma-related deaths (5.5%), in the patients with micrometastases 46 relapses (37.7%) and 29 melanoma-related deaths (23.8%). Prognosis of patients with IPC in SLN did not correlate with type of positive staining (HMB45, Melan A, or both), capsular involvement, number of cells, presence of cytologic atypias of IPC, or tumor penetrative depth. In conclusion, with short-term follow-up IPC in melanoma SLN are without prognostic significance.
SourceAvailable from: Eshini Perera
Article: Malignant Melanoma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery), treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.11/2013; 2(1):1-19. DOI:10.3390/healthcare2010001
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsies are conducted to stage patients with newly diagnosed melanomas that have histopathological attributes conferring defined levels of metastatic potential. Because benign nevic cells may also form 'deposits' in lymph nodes (nodal nevus), the pathological evaluation for metastatic melanoma within sentinel lymph nodes can be challenging. Twenty-eight sentinel lymph node biopsy cases containing either metastatic melanoma (N=18) or nodal nevi (N=10) were retrieved from the archives of the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Pathology (2011-2014). In addition, two sentinel lymph node cases that were favored to represent metastatic disease but whose histopathological features were viewed as equivocal, with melanoma favored, were also included. Dual labeling for the melanocyte lineage marker, MART-1, and the epigenetic marker, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a functionally significant indicator that has been shown to distinguish benign nevi from melanoma, was performed on all cases using immunohistochemistry and/or direct immunofluorescence. All (18 of 18) metastatic melanoma cases showed complete loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells, and all (10 of 10) nodal nevus cases demonstrated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells. In addition, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine staining confirmed the favored diagnoses of metastatic melanoma in the two 'equivocal' cases. Thus, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine may be a useful adjunctive marker to distinguish between benign nodal nevi and metastatic melanoma during the evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsies for metastatic melanoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.99.Modern Pathology 08/2014; DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2014.99 · 6.36 Impact Factor