Irreversible electroporation: implications for prostate ablation.

Center for Bioengineering in the Service of Humanity and Society, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givaat Ram Campus, Jerusalem, Israel 91904.
Technology in cancer research & treatment (Impact Factor: 1.89). 09/2007; 6(4):295-300. DOI: 10.1177/153303460700600405
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Percutaneous prostate cryo-ablation has become an accepted treatment for primary prostate cancer. Thermal tissue ablation based on cold, however, does have some distinct limitations. These include, variable damage at the cryo lesions margin, injury to adjacent structures such as rectum, urethra and NVB (neurovascular bundle), and long procedure time due to the need for multiple freeze thaw cycles, that have limited the acceptance of this modality. Irreversible electroporation IRE, is a new non-thermal ablation modality that uses short pulses of DC electric current to create irreversible pore in the cell membrane, thus, causing cell death. This method theoretically should have significant advantages in ablating prostate tissue. Six males dogs had their prostates treated using IRE. Pulses were applied using a DC generator that delivered pulses in the microsecond range of duration, with a variable pulse interval and voltage range. IRE probes were placed percutaneously or trans-rectally using trans-rectal ultrasound guidance. In one of the dogs, the lesions were made purposely to include the rectum, urethra, and neurovascular bundle (NVB). Subjects were followed for 1 to 14 days before sacrifice. IRE lesions in the prostate had unique characteristics compared to thermal lesions. The margins of the IRE lesions was very distinct with a narrow zone of transition from normal to complete necrosis, there was complete destruction within the IRE lesion, and rapid resolution of the lesions with marked shrinkage within two weeks. Structures such as urethra, vessels, nerves, and rectum were unaffected by the IRE application. IRE lesions have characteristics that are distinctly different than thermal lesions. The differences could be very advantageous in a clinical setting, improving the results and acceptance of prostate ablation.

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    ABSTRACT: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses brief electric pulses to kill a volume of tissue without damaging the structures contraindicated for surgical resection or thermal ablation, including blood vessels and ureters. IRE offers a targeted nephron-sparing approach for treating kidney tumors, but the relevant organ-specific electrical properties and cellular susceptibility to IRE electric pulses remains to be characterized. Here, a pulse protocol of 100 electric pulses, each 100 μs long, are delivered at one pulse per second to canine kidneys at three different voltage-to-distance ratios while measuring intrapulse current six hours before humane euthanasia. Numerical models were correlated with lesions and electrical measurements to determine electrical conductivity behavior and lethal electric field threshold. Three methods for modeling tissue response to the pulses were investigated (static, linear dynamic, and asymmetrical sigmoid dynamic), where the asymmetrical sigmoid dynamic conductivity function most accurately and precisely matched lesion dimensions, with a lethal electric field threshold of 575±67 V/cm for the protocols used. The linear dynamic model also attains accurate predictions with a simpler function. These findings can aid renal IRE treatment planning under varying electrode geometries and pulse strengths. Histology showed a wholly necrotic core lesion at the highest electric fields, surrounded by a transitional perimeter of differential tissue viability dependent on renal structure.
    IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 09/2014; 62(2). DOI:10.1109/TBME.2014.2360374 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrolytic ablation is a method that operates by delivering low magnitude direct current to the target region over long periods of time, generating electrolytic products that destroy cells. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis stating that electrolytic ablation can be made more effective when the electrolysis-producing electric charges are delivered using electric pulses with field strength typical in reversible electroporation protocols. (For brevity we will refer to tissue ablation protocols that combine electroporation and electrolysis as E(2).) The mechanistic explanation of this hypothesis is related to the idea that products of electrolysis generated by E(2) protocols can gain access to the interior of the cell through the electroporation permeabilized cell membrane and therefore cause more effective cell death than from the exterior of an intact cell. The goal of this study is to provide a first-order examination of this hypothesis by comparing the charge dosage required to cause a comparable level of damage to a rat liver, in vivo, when using either conventional electrolysis or E(2) approaches. Our results show that E(2) protocols produce tissue damage that is consistent with electrolytic ablation. Furthermore, E(2) protocols cause damage comparable to that produced by conventional electrolytic protocols while delivering orders of magnitude less charge to the target tissue over much shorter periods of time. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 11/2014; DOI:10.1177/1533034614560102 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current surgical and ablative treatment options for prostate cancer have a relatively high incidence of side effects, which may diminish the quality of life. The side effects are a consequence of procedure-related damage of the blood vessels, bowel, urethra or neurovascular bundle. Ablation with irreversible electroporation (IRE) has shown to be effective in destroying tumour cells and harbours the advantage of sparing surrounding tissue and vital structures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy and to acquire data on patient experience of minimally invasive, transperineally image-guided IRE for the focal ablation of prostate cancer.
    BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(10):e006382. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006382 · 2.06 Impact Factor

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