Alternate routes for drug delivery to the cell interior: pathways to the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.
ABSTRACT The targeted delivery of drugs to the cell interior can be accomplished by taking advantage of the various receptor-mediated endocytic pathways operating in a particular cell. Among these pathways, the retrograde trafficking pathway from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum is of special importance since it provides a route to deliver drugs bypassing the acid pH, hydrolytic environment of the lysosome. The existence of pathways for drug or antigen delivery to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus has been to a large extent an outcome of research on the trafficking of A/B type-bacterial or plant toxins such as Shiga toxin within the cell. The targeting properties of these toxins reside in their B subunit. In this article we present an overview of the multiplicity of pathways to deliver drugs intracellularly. We highlight the retrograde trafficking pathway illustrated by Shiga toxin and Shiga-like toxin, and the potential role of the B subunit of these toxins as carriers of drugs, antigens and imaging agents.
Article: Endocytosis without clathrin coats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endocytosis is involved in an enormous variety of cellular processes. To date, most studies on endocytosis in mammalian cells have focused on pathways that start with uptake through clathrin-coated pits. Recently, new techniques and reagents have allowed a wider range of endocytic pathways to begin to be characterized. Various non-clathrin endocytic mechanisms have been identified, including uptake through caveolae, macropinosomes and via a separate constitutive pathway. Many markers for clathrin-independent endocytosis are found in detergent-resistant membrane fractions, or lipid rafts. We will discuss these emerging new findings and their implications for the nature of lipid rafts themselves, as well as for the potential roles of non-clathrin endocytic pathways in remodeling of the plasma membrane and in regulating the membrane composition of specific intracellular organelles.Trends in Cell Biology 11/2001; 11(10):406-12. · 12.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toxins can invade cells by using a direct endosome-to-Golgi endocytic pathway that bypasses late endosomes/prelysosomes. This is also a route used by endogenous proteins, including GPP130, which is an integral membrane protein retrieved via the bypass pathway from endosomes to its steady-state location in the cis-Golgi. An RNA interference-based test revealed that GPP130 was required for efficient exit of Shiga toxin B-fragment from endosomes en route to the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, two proteins whose Golgi targeting depends on endosome-to-Golgi retrieval in the bypass pathway accumulated in early/recycling endosomes in the absence of GPP130. GPP130 activity seemed specific to bypass pathway trafficking because the targeting of other tested proteins, including those retrieved to the Golgi via the more conventional late endosome route, was unaltered. Thus, a distally cycling Golgi protein mediates exit from endosomes and thereby underlies Shiga toxin invasion and retrieval-based targeting of other cycling Golgi proteins.Molecular Biology of the Cell 12/2004; 15(11):4798-806. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atmospheric acidification of catchment-lake ecosystems may provide natural conditions for the in-lake control of P cycling. This process is based on the elevated transport of aluminum from acidified soils and its subsequent precipitation in the water body and is described for strongly acidified forest lakes, acidified and circumneutral reservoirs, and a moderately acidified alpine lake. In water bodies with episodically or permanently acidified inflows a pH gradient develops between lake water and tributaries due to: (i) neutralization of acidic inflows after mixing with waters with undepleted carbonate buffering system, and/or (ii) the in-lake alkalinity generation dominated by biochemical removal of NO3- and SO4(2-). With the pH increasing towards neutrality, ionic Al species hydrolyze and form colloidal Al hydroxides (Al(part)) with large specific surfaces and strong ability to bind orthophosphate from the liquid phase. Moreover, Alpart settles and increases the P sorption capacity of the sediment. The presence of Al(part) on the bottom reduces orthophosphate release from sediments after its liberation from ferric oxyhydroxides during anoxia because Al(part) is not sensitive to redox changes. Consequently, the natural in-lake P inactivation may be expected in any water body with elevated Al input and a pH gradient between its inlet and outlet.Water Research 12/2001; 35(16):3783-90. · 4.86 Impact Factor