Lymphotoxin-beta regulates periderm differentiation during embryonic skin development.
ABSTRACT Lymphotoxin-beta (LTbeta) is a key regulator of immune system development, but also affects late stages in hair development. In addition, high expression of LTbeta at an early stage in epidermis hinted at a further function in hair follicle induction or epithelial development. We report that hair follicles were normally induced in LTbeta(-/-) skin, but the periderm detached from the epidermis earlier, accompanied by premature appearance of keratohyalin granules. Expression profiling revealed dramatic down-regulation of a gene cluster encoding periderm-specific keratin-associated protein 13 and four novel paralogs in LTbeta(-/-) skin prior to periderm detachment. Epidermal differentiation markers, including small proline-rich proteins, filaggrins and several keratins, were also affected, but transiently in LTbeta(-/-) skin at the time of abnormal periderm detachment. As expected, Tabby mice, which lack the EDA gene, the putative upstream regulator of LTbeta in skin, showed similar though milder periderm histopathology and alterations in gene expression. Overall, LTbeta shows a primary early function in periderm differentiation, with later transient effects on epidermal and hair follicle differentiation.
Article: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is required for epithelial morphogenesis and integrity during zebrafish epiboly and skin development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aberrant expression of the transmembrane protein EpCAM is associated with tumor progression, affecting different cellular processes such as cell-cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, signaling, and invasion. However, the in vivo function of EpCAM still remains elusive due to the lack of genetic loss-of-function studies. Here, we describe epcam (tacstd) null mutants in zebrafish. Maternal-zygotic mutants display compromised basal protrusive activity and epithelial morphogenesis in cells of the enveloping layer (EVL) during epiboly. In partial redundancy with E-cadherin (Ecad), EpCAM made by EVL cells is further required for cell-cell adhesion within the EVL and, possibly, for proper attachment of underlying deep cells to the inner surface of the EVL, thereby also affecting deep cell epiboly movements. During later development, EpCAM per se becomes indispensable for epithelial integrity within the periderm of the skin, secondarily leading to disrupted morphology of the underlying basal epidermis and moderate hyper-proliferation of skin cells. On the molecular level, EVL cells of epcam mutant embryos display reduced levels of membranous Ecad, accompanied by an enrichment of tight junction proteins and a basal extension of apical junction complexes (AJCs). Our data suggest that EpCAM acts as a partner of E-cadherin to control adhesiveness and integrity as well as plasticity and morphogenesis within simple epithelia. In addition, EpCAM is required for the interaction of the epithelia with underlying cell layers.PLoS Genetics 08/2009; 5(7):e1000563. · 8.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mouse hair coat comprises protective "primary" and thermo-regulatory "secondary" hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda) dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda(-/y)) mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4), a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10009. · 4.09 Impact Factor