Racial/Ethnic differences in longitudinal risk of intracranial hemorrhage in brain arteriovenous malformation patients.
ABSTRACT Race/ethnicity is associated with overall incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), but its impact in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation is unknown. We evaluated whether race/ethnicity was a risk factor for ICH in the natural course in a large, multiethnic cohort of patients with brain arteriovenous malformation followed longitudinally.
Data were collected prospectively for patients with brain arteriovenous malformation evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco (n=436) and retrospectively through databases and chart review in the 20 hospitals of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (n=1028). Multivariate Cox regression was performed to assess the influence of race/ethnicity on subsequent ICH, adjusting for risk factors. Cases were censored at first treatment, loss to follow-up, or death.
Average follow up was 4.7+/-8.0 years for Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program patients and 2.8+/-7.3 years for University of California, San Francisco patients with no difference in time to ICH between cohorts (log rank P=0.57). The annualized 5-year ICH rate was 2.1% (3.7% for ruptured at presentation; 1.4% for unruptured). Initial ICH presentation (hazard ratio: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.9, P<0.001) and Hispanic race/ethnicity (hazard ratio: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.3, P=0.02) were independent predictors of ICH, adjusting for age, gender, cohort, and a cohort-age interaction. The ICH risk for Hispanics versus whites increased to 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3 to 7.4, P=0.013) after further adjusting for arteriovenous malformation size and deep venous drainage in a subset of cases with complete data. Similar trends were observed for blacks (hazard ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 0.9 to 4.8, P=0.09) and Asians (hazard ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 0.8 to 7.1, P=0.11), although nonsignificant.
This study reports the first description of race/ethnic differences in brain arteriovenous malformation, with Hispanics at an increased risk of subsequent ICH compared with whites.
Article: Reduced expression of integrin alphavbeta8 is associated with brain arteriovenous malformation pathogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are a rare but potentially devastating hemorrhagic disease. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling is required for proper vessel development, and defective transforming growth factor-beta superfamily signaling has been implicated in BAVM pathogenesis. We hypothesized that expression of the transforming growth factor-beta activating integrin, alphavbeta8, is reduced in BAVMs and that decreased beta8 expression leads to defective neoangiogenesis. We determined that beta8 protein expression in perivascular astrocytes was reduced in human BAVM lesional tissue compared with controls and that the angiogenic response to focal vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation in adult mouse brains with local Cre-mediated deletion of itgb8 and smad4 led to vascular dysplasia in newly formed blood vessels. In addition, common genetic variants in ITGB8 were associated with BAVM susceptibility, and ITGB8 genotypes associated with increased risk of BAVMs correlated with decreased beta8 immunostaining in BAVM tissue. These three lines of evidence from human studies and a mouse model suggest that reduced expression of integrin beta8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic BAVMs.American Journal Of Pathology 12/2009; 176(2):1018-27. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The underlying mechanisms are not clear. No animal model for adult bAVM is available for mechanistic exploration. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2) with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1) mutations have a higher incidence of bAVM than the general population. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation with regional homozygous deletion of Alk1 induces severe dysplasia in the adult mouse brain, akin to human bAVM. Alk1(2f/2f) (exons 4-6 flanked by loxP sites) and wild-type (WT) mice (8-10 weeks old) were injected with adenoviral vector expressing Cre recombinase (Ad-Cre; 2 × 10(7) plaque forming units [PFU]) and adeno-associated viral vectors expressing VEGF (AAV-VEGF; 2 × 10(9) genome copies) into the basal ganglia. At 8 weeks, blood vessels were analyzed. Gross vascular irregularities were seen in Alk1(2f/2f) mouse brain injected with Ad-Cre and AAV-VEGF. The vessels were markedly enlarged with abnormal patterning resembling aspects of the human bAVM phenotype, displayed altered expression of the arterial and venous markers (EphB4 and Jagged-1), and showed evidence of arteriovenous shunting. Vascular irregularities were not seen in similarly treated WT mice. Our data indicate that postnatal, adult formation of the human disease, bAVM, is possible, and that both genetic mutation and angiogenic stimulation are necessary for lesion development. Our work not only provides a testable adult mouse bAVM model for the first time, but also suggests that specific medical therapy can be developed to slow bAVM growth and potentially stabilize the rupture-prone abnormal vasculature.Annals of Neurology 12/2010; 69(6):954-62. · 11.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults. Gene expression profiling of blood has led to the identification of stroke biomarkers, and may help identify BAVM biomarkers and illuminate BAVM pathogenesis. It is unknown whether blood gene expression profiles differ between 1) BAVM patients and healthy controls, or 2) unruptured and ruptured BAVM patients at presentation. We characterized blood transcriptional profiles in 60 subjects (20 unruptured BAVM, 20 ruptured BAVM, and 20 healthy controls) using Affymetrix whole genome expression arrays. Expression differences between groups were tested by ANOVA, adjusting for potential confounders. Genes with absolute fold change ≥ 1.2 (false discovery rate corrected p ≤ 0.1) were selected as differentially expressed and evaluated for over-representation in KEGG biological pathways (p ≤ 0.05). Twenty-nine genes were differentially expressed between unruptured BAVM patients and controls, including 13 which may be predictive of BAVM. Patients with ruptured BAVM compared to unruptured BAVM differed in expression of 1490 genes, with over-representation of genes in 8 pathways including MAPK, VEGF, Wnt signaling and several inflammatory pathways. These results suggest clues to the pathogenesis of BAVM and/or BAVM rupture and point to potential biomarkers or new treatment targets.Translational Stroke Research 12/2011; 2(4):575-587.