Future chemoradiation strategies in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT Although not universally accepted, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation is considered a standard treatment for patients with localized pancreatic cancer. Randomized trials have indicated that chemoradiation improves median survival of both locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer. While the use of adjuvant chemoradiation in pancreatic cancer has been called into question since the publication of the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC)-1 trial, this study has not changed standard practice in the United States. All randomized trials investigating adjuvant chemoradiation have reported significant local as well as distant disease control limitations, making the study of novel chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy important. Selected centers are investigating neoadjuvant chemoradiation in radiographically resectable patients. Advantages of neoadjuvant chemoradiation compared to postoperative therapy include increased local control, increased access to therapy, addressing the systemic disease recurrence risk without delay, and optimal patient selection for pancreaticoduodenectomy through exclusion of patients with rapidly progressive metastatic disease. In the years since it was approved for use in pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine has stood the test of time as a systemic agent but has not been widely adopted as a radiosensitzer in pancreatic cancer. Single-arm clinical trials that initially explored gemcitabine as a radiosensitzer in locally advanced pancreatic cancer demonstrated the potential for significant toxicity without dramatic improvements in efficacy. Recent strategies for improving the efficacy of chemoradiation include improved chemoradiation sensitization through the concurrent incorporation of molecular targeted agents, and the use of new radiation technology such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy. Herein, we discuss the relative merits of strategies that seek to improve outcome through these novel means and present recent data from novel strategies that will provide the background for future trials.
SourceAvailable from: Tomoko Mitsuhashi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to play an important role in chemoradiation resistance. Although the association of CSC markers with clinicopathological outcomes after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been reported in various types of cancers, there have been no such reports for pancreatic cancer. Here we examined the sequential changes in CSC marker expressions after NACRT in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) and the impact of these changes on the prognosis.BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):687. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-687 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A major challenge with pancreatic cancer management is in the discrimination of clearly resectable tumors from those that would likely be accompanied by a positive resection margin if upfront surgery was attempted. The standard of care for clearly resectable pancreatic cancer remains surgery followed by adjuvant therapy, but there is considerable controversy over whether such therapeutic adjuvant strategies should include radiotherapy. Furthermore, in a malignancy with such high rates of distant metastasis, investigators are now exploring the feasibility and outcomes of delivering therapy in the neoadjuvant setting, both for clearly resectable as well as borderline resectable tumors. In this review, we explore the current standard of care of upfront surgery for clearly resectable cancers followed by adjuvant therapy, focusing on the role of radiotherapy. We highlight the difficulties in interpreting a literature fraught with inconsistencies in how resectable vs borderline resectable cancers are defined and treated. Finally, we explore the role of neoadjuvant strategies in the modern era.Seminars in radiation oncology 04/2014; 24(2):113–125. DOI:10.1016/j.semradonc.2013.11.002 · 3.77 Impact Factor