A cluster of translocation breakpoints in 2q37 is associated with overexpression of NPPC in patients with a similar overgrowth phenotype
ABSTRACT Overexpression of the C-type natriuretic peptide, encoded by the NPPC gene in 2q37.1, was recently reported in a patient presenting an overgrowth phenotype and a balanced t(2;7)(q37.1;q21.3) translocation. We present clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular data from two additional patients carrying balanced translocations involving the same 2q37.1 chromosome band and chromosomes 8 and 13, respectively. The clinical phenotype of these patients is very similar to the first patient described. In addition to the overgrowth syndrome, there is evidence of generalized cartilage dysplasia. In these two new cases, we found overexpression of NPPC, confirming that this unusual overgrowth phenotype in humans is due to the overexpression of this gene. The involvement of three different chromosomes and a cluster of breakpoints around the NPPC gene suggests that the overexpression of this gene in translocation patients could be due to its separation from a negative regulatory element located on chromosome 2, which would constitute a previously undescribed mutational mechanism.
SourceAvailable from: Toshimi Michigami[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The signal pathway of the C-type natriuretic (CNP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) is involved in the longitudinal growth of long bones. Loss of function mutations at NPR2 cause acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux, while overproduction of CNP by chromosomal translocation and a gain-of-function mutation at NPR2 have been reported to be responsible for an overgrowth syndrome in three cases and one family, respectively. We identified a four-generation family with an overgrowth syndrome characterized by tall stature, macrodactyly of the great toes, scoliosis, coxa valga and slipped capital femoral epiphysis, similar to those previously reported in association with CNP/NPR2 overactivity. The serum level of amino-terminal proCNP was normal in the proband. A novel missense mutation of NPR2, c.1462G>C (p.Ala488Pro) was found to co-segregate with the phenotype in this family. In vitro transfection assay of the mutant NPR2 revealed overactivity of the mutant receptor at baseline as well as with the ligand. This overgrowth syndrome caused by a gain-of-function mutation at NPR2 should be differentiated from Marfan or related syndromes, and may be categorized along with the overgrowth syndrome caused by overproduction of CNP due to its phenotypical similarity as overgrowth CNP/NPR2 signalopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2014; 164(1). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36218 · 2.05 Impact Factor
08/2013; 14(Suppl 1):P35-P35. DOI:10.1186/2050-6511-14-S1-P35
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ABSTRACT: Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism, is caused by an activating autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) gene. Genetic overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a positive regulator of endochondral bone growth, prevents dwarfism in mouse models of ACH. However, administration of exogenous CNP is compromised by its rapid clearance in vivo through receptor-mediated and proteolytic pathways. Using in vitro approaches, we developed modified variants of human CNP, resistant to proteolytic degradation by neutral endopeptidase (NEP), that retain the ability to stimulate signaling downstream of the CNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR B). The variants tested in vivo demonstrated significantly longer serum half-lives than native CNP. Subcutaneous administration of one of these CNP variants, BMN 111, resulted in correction of the dwarfism phenotype in a mouse model of ACH and overgrowth of the axial and appendicular skeletons in wild-type mice without observable changes in trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Moreover, significant growth plate widening that translated into accelerated bone growth, at hemodynamically tolerable doses, was observed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys that had received daily subcutaneous administrations of BMN 111. BMN 111 was well tolerated and represents a promising new approach for treatment of patients with ACH. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2015; DOI:10.1124/jpet.114.218560 · 3.86 Impact Factor