Effects of added trunk load and corresponding trunk position adaptations on lower extremity biomechanics during drop-landings
ABSTRACT Although both trunk mass and trunk position have the potential to affect lower extremity biomechanics during landing, these effects are not well understood. Our overall hypothesis stated that both trunk mass and trunk position affect lower extremity biomechanics in landing. Thus, our purpose was to determine the effects of an added trunk load and kinematic trunk adaptation groups on lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and energetics during drop-landings. Twenty-one recreationally active subjects were instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Subjects performed two sets of eight double-limb landings with and without 10% body weight added to the trunk. On lower extremity dependent variables, 2(condition: no load, trunk load)x2(group: trunk extensors vs. trunk flexors) ANOVAs were performed. Condition by group interactions at the hip showed differing responses to the added trunk load between groups where the trunk extensor group decreased hip extensor efforts ( downward decrease 11-18%) while the trunk flexor group increased hip extensor efforts ( upward increase 14-19%). The trunk load increased biomechanical demands at the knee and ankle regardless of trunk adaptation group. However, the percent increases in angular impulses and energy absorption in the trunk extensor group were 14-28% while increases in the trunk flexor group were 4-9%. Given the 10% body weight added to the trunk, the 14-28% increases at the knee and ankle in the trunk extensor group were likely due to the reduced hip extensor efforts during landing. Overall these findings support our overall hypothesis that both trunk mass and trunk position affect lower extremity biomechanics during vertically oriented landing tasks.
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ABSTRACT: Although the squat exercise and its variations are commonly prescribed for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, whether trunk position affects these ligament forces and strains during the squat is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of trunk position on anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat. While instrumented for biomechanical analysis, twelve recreationally active subjects performed single-leg squats with minimal and moderate amounts of forward trunk lean. A combination of inverse dynamics, Hill-type muscle modeling, and mathematical computations estimated anterior cruciate ligament forces, strains and quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius forces. The moderate forward trunk lean condition vs. minimal forward trunk lean condition had lower peak anterior cruciate ligament forces (↓24%), strains (↓16%), and average anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during knee flexion ranges of motion of 25-55°(descent) and 35-55°(ascent). A moderate vs. minimal forward trunk lean also produced 35% higher hamstring forces throughout the majority of the squat, but lower quadriceps forces only at knee flexion angles greater than 65°. Single-leg squats performed with a moderate forward trunk lean (~40°) can minimize anterior cruciate ligament loads. Mechanistically, trunk lean reduced anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains through concomitant modulations in hip flexion angle and biarticular thigh muscle forces. These findings are clinically relevant for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation as a common goal is to minimize anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains through enhancing hamstring and quadriceps co-contractions.Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 08/2011; 27(1):16-21. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2011.07.009 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Considering that an athlete performs at-risk sports activities countless times throughout the course of his or her career prior to the instance of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, one may conclude that non-contact ACL injury is a rare event. Nevertheless, the overall number of non-contact ACL injuries, both in the US and worldwide, remains alarming due to the growing number of recreational and professional athletes participating in high-risk activities. To date, numerous non-contact ACL injury mechanisms have been proposed, but none provides a detailed picture of sequence of events leading to injury and the exact cause of this injury remains elusive. In this perspective article, we propose a new conception of non-contact ACL injury mechanism that comprehensively integrates risk factors inside and outside the knee joint. The proposed mechanism is robust in the sense that it is biomechanically justifiable and addresses a number of confounding issues related to ACL injury.Journal of Biomechanics 02/2011; 44(4):577-85. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.11.013 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue purportedly increases anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk through promotion of extreme landing mechanics. However, the impact of fatigue on muscle groups critical to the landing strategy remains unclear. This study examined the effects of isolated hip rotator and triceps surae fatigue on lower extremity landing biomechanics. Sixteen healthy females (18-22 years) reported for testing on two occasions, with one muscle group fatigued per session. Subjects performed three single-leg landings onto a force platform pre- and post-fatigue, defined as an 80% decrease in peak torque in the targeted muscle group. Hip rotator fatigue was induced via alternating concentric contractions and triceps surae fatigue through concentric plantar flexion contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Initial contact (IC) kinematics and peak stance (PS) kinetics and kinematics were analyzed pre- and post-fatigue. Hip rotator fatigue increased IC (P=0.05) and PS (P=0.04) hip internal rotation angles. Triceps surae fatigue decreased IC knee flexion (P=0.01) angle. Isolated hip rotator and triceps surae fatigue each produced modifications in lower limb kinematic parameters viewed as risk factors for ACL injury. These modifications, however, do not appear of sufficient magnitude to compromise ligament integrity, suggesting injury via an integrative lower extremity fatigue mechanism is more likely.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2010; 21(3):359-68. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01076.x · 3.17 Impact Factor