Anterior Regions of Monkey Parietal Cortex Process Visual 3D Shape

Lab Neuro- en Psychofysiologie, K.U. Leuven, Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.05). 09/2007; 55(3):493-505. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.06.040
Source: PubMed


The intraparietal cortex is involved in the control of visually guided actions, like reach-to-grasp movements, which require extracting the 3D shape and position of objects from 2D retinal images. Using fMRI in behaving monkeys, we investigated the role of the intraparietal cortex in processing stereoscopic information for recovering the depth structure and the position in depth of objects. We found that while several areas (CIP, LIP, and AIP on the lateral bank; PIP and MIP on the medial bank) are activated by stereoscopic stimuli, AIP and an adjoining portion of LIP are sensitive only to depth structure. Furthermore, only these two regions are sensitive to both the depth structure and the 2D shape of small objects. These results indicate that extracting 3D spatial information from stereo involves several intraparietal areas, among which AIP and anterior LIP are more specifically engaged in extracting the 3D shape of objects.

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Available from: Guy A Orban, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "LIP is structurally connected to multiple visual areas (Lewis & Van Essen, 2000; Felleman & Van Essen, 1991) and to several oculomotor structures (Prevosto, Graf, & Ugolini, 2010; Field, Johnston, Gati, Menon, & Everling, 2008; Ferraina, Pare, & Wurtz, 2002; Lewis & Van Essen, 2000; Stanton, Bruce, & Goldberg, 1995), making it perfectly situated to gather and combine various sources of visual information with the objective of guiding visual orienting. LIP has been found to respond selectively to differently shaped visual objects ( Janssen, Srivastava, Ombelet, & Orban, 2008; Konen & Kastner, 2008a, 2008b; Durand et al., 2007; Lehky & Sereno, 2007; Sereno & Amador, 2006; Sereno, Trinath, Augath, & Logothetis, 2002; Sereno & Maunsell, 1998). This is akin to many regions within the ventral visual stream (Palmeri & Gauthier, 2004; Logothetis & Sheinberg, 1996; Milner & Goodale, 1995; Goodale & Milner, 1992; Ungerleider & Mishkin, 1982), although the responses of LIP to visual objects are far less studied and understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) is thought to play an important role in the guidance of where to look and pay attention. LIP can also respond selectively to differently shaped objects. We sought to understand to what extent short-term and long-term experience with visual orienting determines the responses of LIP to objects of different shapes. We taught monkeys to arbitrarily associate centrally presented objects of various shapes with orienting either toward or away from a preferred spatial location of a neuron. The training could last for less than a single day or for several months. We found that neural responses to objects are affected by such experience, but that the length of the learning period determines how this neural plasticity manifests. Short-term learning affects neural responses to objects, but these effects are only seen relatively late after visual onset; at this time, the responses to newly learned objects resemble those of familiar objects that share their meaning or arbitrary association. Long-term learning affects the earliest bottom-up responses to visual objects. These responses tend to be greater for objects that have been associated with looking toward, rather than away from, LIP neurons' preferred spatial locations. Responses to objects can nonetheless be distinct, although they have been similarly acted on in the past and will lead to the same orienting behavior in the future. Our results therefore indicate that a complete experience-driven override of LIP object responses may be difficult or impossible. We relate these results to behavioral work on visual attention.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 01/2015; 27(7):1-16. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00789 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Further along the ventral stream, the activity of neurons in the lower bank of the STS in the anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex correlates with perceptual decisions made by monkeys during 3-D shape categorization ( Verhoef, Vogels, & Janssen, 2010), and microstimulation of these neurons strongly and predictably influences 3-D shape categorization behavior ( Verhoef, Vogels, & Janssen, 2012). However, neurons in the dorsal visual stream also signal 3-D structure information (Theys, Srivastava, van Loon, Goffin, & Janssen, 2012; Srivastava, Orban, De Mazière, & Janssen, 2009; Preston, Li, Kourtzi, & Welchman, 2008; Durand et al., 2007; Nguyenkim & DeAngelis, 2003; Tsao et al., 2003; Tsutsui, Jiang, Yara, Sakata, & Taira, 2001), and neurons in several dorsal stream areas (e.g., MT, MST, CIP, and LIP) have been implicated in perceptual decisions (Swaminathan & Freedman, 2012; Hanks, Ditterich, & Shadlen, 2006; Tsutsui et al., 2001; Britten & van Wezel, 1998; DeAngelis, Cumming, & Newsome, 1998; Salzman, Britten, & Newsome, 1990). These findings raise the possibility that some dorsal stream areas, such as the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) with its 3-D shapeselective neurons (Srivastava et al., 2009), are also involved in 3-D shape perception. "
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    ABSTRACT: The anterior intraparietal area (AIP) of macaques contains neurons that signal the depth structure of disparity-defined 3-D shapes. Previous studies have suggested that AIP's depth information is used for sensorimotor transformations related to the efficient grasping of 3-D objects. We trained monkeys to categorize disparity-defined 3-D shapes and examined whether neuronal activity in AIP may also underlie pure perceptual categorization behavior. We first show that neurons with a similar 3-D shape preference cluster in AIP. We then demonstrate that the monkeys' 3-D shape discrimination performance depends on the position in depth of the stimulus and that this performance difference is reflected in the activity of AIP neurons. We further reveal correlations between the neuronal activity in AIP and the subject's subsequent choices and RTs during 3-D shape categorization. Our findings propose AIP as an important processing stage for 3-D shape perception.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12/2014; 27(6):1-12. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00773 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Likewise, it would be interesting to further understand how higher level cues interact with vergence and disparity signals to construct a representation of space. Durand et al. (2007) have used such an approach to explore how objects are encoded in 3D. A similar approach could be extended to the analysis of space representation at large. "
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    ABSTRACT: While space is perceived as unitary, experimental evidence indicates that the brain actually contains a modular representation of space, specific cortical regions being involved in the processing of extra-personal space, that is the space that is far away from the subject and that cannot be directly acted upon by the body, while other cortical regions process peripersonal space, that is the space that directly surrounds us and which we can act upon. In the present review, we focus on non-human primate research and we review the single cells, areal and cortical functional network mechanisms that are proposed to underlie extrapersonal and peripersonal space representations. Importantly, the current dominant framework for the study of peripersonal space is centered on the key notion that actions and specifically arm and hand-related actions, shape cortical peripersonal space representations. In the present review, we propose to enlarge this framework to include other variables that have the potential to shape peripersonal space representations, namely emotional and social information. In the initial section of the manuscript, we thus first provide an extensive up-to-date review of the low level sensory and oculomotor signals that contribute to the construction of a core cortical far and near space representation, in key parietal, premotor and prefrontal periarcuate cortical regions. We then highlight the key functional properties that are needed to encode peripersonal space and we narrow down our discussion to the specific parietal and periarcuate areas that share these properties: the parieto-premotor peripersonal space network and the parieto-premotor network for grasping. Last, we review evidence for a changing peripersonal space representation. While plastic changes in peripersonal space representation have been described during tool use and their underlying neural bases have been well characterized, the description of dynamical changes in peripersonal space representation as a function of the emotional or social context is quite novel and relies on behavioral human studies. The neural bases of such a dynamic adjustments of peripersonal space coding are yet unknown. We thus review these novel observations and we discuss their putative underlying neural bases.
    Neuropsychologia 10/2014; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.10.022 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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