Profile of lifetime methamphetamine use among homeless adults in Los Angeles

University of California, Los Angeles, School of Nursing, Room 2-250, Factor Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1702, USA.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Impact Factor: 3.42). 02/2008; 92(1-3):277-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.06.015
Source: PubMed


Although the dramatic rise of methamphetamine use in the general population has been well-documented, little is known about methamphetamine use in the homeless population. This study examines self-reported methamphetamine use and its correlates among a sample of 664 urban homeless adults in Los Angeles. Over one-quarter of the overall sample, and 60% of whites, disclosed lifetime methamphetamine use. Less than 10% of African-Americans reported ever using methamphetamine. Approximately one-tenth of respondents reported current methamphetamine use; almost 90% of current users shared straws to snort methamphetamine and half used it daily. Logistic regression analysis in younger (18-39) and older (40+) respondents revealed that white ethnicity, polydrug use and binge drinking were independently associated with lifetime methamphetamine use, regardless of age. Injection drug use (IDU) was also an important correlate of methamphetamine use for older African-Americans. IDU was not important for the younger group. Findings suggest that there is need for greater surveillance of methamphetamine use among homeless whites and Hispanics, and methamphetamine-use prevention and reduction targeted to younger, polydrug-using, alcohol-binging homeless adults.

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Available from: Steve Shoptaw, Aug 04, 2014
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    • "Lastly, our findings indicate that residing in unstable accommodation and engaging in criminal behaviours reduced the likelihood of recent abstinence. Studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine use is common among homeless populations (Nyamathi et al., 2008; Semple et al., 2004) and is often associated with increased criminal activity (Cartier et al., 2006; Degenhardt et al., 2008). Nevertheless, these findings highlight the disadvantage experienced by some methamphetamine users and the detrimental impact such problems can have on substance use (and vice versa). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Investigate changes to a prospective cohort of methamphetamine users over 12 months, predictors of remission from methamphetamine dependence and past-month abstinence from methamphetamine use. Method: Structured interviews were administered to 255 regular methamphetamine users at baseline (2010) and 12 months (2011). A multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) model identified adjusted associations with past-month abstinence at follow-up. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified factors independently associated with remission from methamphetamine dependence. Results: Most (60%) participants were methamphetamine-dependent at baseline. Remission from dependence (n = 38) was independently associated with age (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88–1.00), maintaining/gaining employment since baseline (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.21–8.14) and a greater increase in self-perceived social support (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01–1.16). Past-month abstinence at follow-up was independently associated with being female (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10–3.44), recent criminal behaviours (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.82), recent ecstasy (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.12–0.72) and benzodiazepine use (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29–0.96), and being less methamphetamine-dependent (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.72–0.88). Drug treatment was not independently associated with either outcome at follow-up. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the potential for natural remission from methamphetamine dependence; however, targeted interventions should be developed for individuals who are likely to maintain dependent/harmful use patterns.
    Journal of Substance Use 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/14659891.2015.1018972 · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    • "The substances most commonly used by homeless women are alcohol, marijuana, and crack/ cocaine (Bassuk et al., 1998; Robertson et al., 1997; Tucker, D'Amico et al., 2005). Recent research has documented an upward trend in the use of amphetamines and methamphetamine, although limited attention has focused on these substances among homeless women (Das- Douglas et al., 2007; Nyamathi et al., 2008). The prevalence and negative health consequences of alcohol and drug use call for a better understanding of the risk factors for homeless women's use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Substance use poses a significant threat to the health of women, and homeless women are more likely to use alcohol and drugs than other women. Addressing risk factors in this population requires a focus on the social context of substance use among homeless women. Participants were 445 homeless women who were randomly sampled and interviewed in shelter settings about the characteristics of their personal networks. Binomial logistic regressions predicted days of binge drinking and of using marijuana, crack, cocaine, and methamphetamine or other amphetamines in the past 6 months. Homeless women with a greater proportion of heavy alcohol users in their personal networks had greater odds of engaging in binge drinking, and women with a greater proportion of drug users in their networks had greater odds of using marijuana, cocaine, crack, and methamphetamine or other amphetamines. Women with a greater proportion of individuals in their networks that they had met in school or through work had lower odds of marijuana, cocaine, and crack use. Findings suggest the importance of structural solutions in addressing homeless women's alcohol and drug use, including greater access to treatment and recovery support for alcohol and drug problems as well as depression, and enhancing employment and educational opportunities for homeless women.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 08/2009; 105(1-2):16-23. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.05.026 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews epidemiological information about methamphetamine production and use in North America. Information is drawn from a range of sources, including, but not limited to, historical accounts, peer-reviewed papers, population surveys and large national databases. Methamphetamine and amphetamine use in North America is characterised by geographic variations, with different types of the drug, different routes of administration and different types of users at various times. Unlike some other drug use patterns in North America, the nature of methamphetamine use in Canada, Mexico and the United States has been linked closely in terms of production and supply of the drug. According to their national household surveys, the annual prevalence for 'speed' use in Canada was 0.8% in 2004, 0.3% for 'anfetaminas' and 0.1% for 'metanfetaminas' in Mexico in 2002, and 1.4% for 'stimulants' in the United States in 2006. Although the data sources in the three North American countries are not consistent in methodology, terminology or frequency of reporting, all show similar trends. The type of stimulant most used has shifted from non-medical use of pharmaceutical amphetamine to use of powder methamphetamine and then to use of 'ice'. The indicators show the problem is greatest in the western parts of the countries and is moving eastward, but the decreased availability of pseudoephedrine may have a significant impact on the nature of the epidemic in the future. Nevertheless, use of methamphetamine poses a number of risks for users and specialised treatment resources for these various populations are needed.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 06/2008; 27(3):229-35. DOI:10.1080/09595230801919460 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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