Shiva, S. et al. Nitrite augments tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury via the modulation of mitochondrial electron transfer. J. Exp. Med. 204, 2089-2102

Vascular Medicine Branch, National Heart Lung Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 10/2007; 204(9):2089-102. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20070198
Source: PubMed


Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic preconditioning cell-survival program. Analogous to the temporally distinct acute and delayed ischemic preconditioning cytoprotective phenotypes, we report that both acute and delayed (24 h before ischemia) exposure to physiological concentrations of nitrite, given both systemically or orally, potently limits cardiac and hepatic reperfusion injury. This cytoprotection is associated with increases in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Remarkably, isolated mitochondria subjected to 30 min of anoxia followed by reoxygenation were directly protected by nitrite administered both in vitro during anoxia or in vivo 24 h before mitochondrial isolation. Mechanistically, nitrite dose-dependently modifies and inhibits complex I by posttranslational S-nitrosation; this dampens electron transfer and effectively reduces reperfusion reactive oxygen species generation and ameliorates oxidative inactivation of complexes II-IV and aconitase, thus preventing mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and cytochrome c release. These data suggest that nitrite dynamically modulates mitochondrial resilience to reperfusion injury and may represent an effector of the cell-survival program of ischemic preconditioning and the Mediterranean diet.

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    • "We measured the reoxygenation rate of a mitochondrial suspension after hypoxia in the presence of deoxymyoglobin and nitrite, with and without NIR (660 nm, 50 mW/cm2) (Figure 4). While Mb and nitrite induce inhibition of mitochondrial respiration alone (Shiva et al., 2007a,b; Hendgen-Cotta et al., 2008), we hypothesized that light enhances this inhibition through its action on MbNO formed as a consequence of nitrite reductase activity of heme. We found that NIR, while alone had no considerable effect, could potentiate the inhibition caused by Mb and nitrite at lower nitrite doses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Far red/near-infrared light (NIR) promotes a wide range of biological effects including tissue protection but whether and how NIR is capable of acutely protecting myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo is not fully elucidated. Our previous work indicates that NIR exposure immediately before and during early reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction through mechanisms that are nitric oxide (NO)-dependent. Here we tested the hypothesis that NIR elicits protection in a diabetic mouse model where other cardioprotective interventions such as pre- and postconditioning fail, and that the protection is independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NIR reduced infarct size dose dependently. Importantly, NIR-induced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db) and during acute hyperglycemia, as well as in endothelial NOS(-/-) mice and in wild type mice treated with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In in vitro experiments NIR light liberates NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO) and nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO) in a wavelength-(660-830 nm) and dose-dependent manner. Irradiation at 660 nm yields the highest release of NO, while at longer wavelengths a dramatic decrease of NO release can be observed. Similar wavelength dependence was observed for the protection of mice against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo. NIR-induced NO release from deoxymyoglobin in the presence of nitrite mildly inhibits respiration of isolated mitochondria after hypoxia. In summary, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction in an NO-dependent, but NOS-independent mechanisms, whereby mitochondria may be a target of NO released by NIR, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species generation during reperfusion. This unique mechanism preserves protection even during diabetes where other protective strategies fail.
    Frontiers in Physiology 08/2014; 5:305. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00305 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Our findings of a cellular protective effect of increased mitochondrial L-arginine transport and NO production are entirely consistent with the findings of Chouchani and colleagues who demonstrated that S-nitrosation of complex I, using a mitochondrial selective NO donor, provided cardioprotection by reducing oxidative damage [7]. Similarly, S-nitrosation of complex I by nitrite has also been shown to be cardioprotective [32]. As such, S-nitrosation of key cysteine residues could protective effects during ischemic injury by preventing the irreversible effects of exposure to peroxynitrite. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Impaired mitochondrial function is fundamental feature of heart failure (HF) and myocardial ischemia. In addition to the effects of heightened oxidative stress, altered nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, generated by a mitochondrial NO synthase, has also been proposed to impact upon mitochondrial function. However, the mechanism responsible for arginine transport into mitochondria and the effect of HF on such a process is unknown. We therefore aimed to characterize mitochondrial L-arginine transport and to investigate the hypothesis that impaired mitochondrial L-arginine transport plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure and myocardial injury. Methods and Results In mitochondria isolated from failing hearts (sheep rapid pacing model and mouse Mst1 transgenic model) we demonstrated a marked reduction in L-arginine uptake (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively) and expression of the principal L-arginine transporter, CAT-1 (p<0.001, p<0.01) compared to controls. This was accompanied by significantly lower NO production and higher 3-nitrotyrosine levels (both p<0.05). The role of mitochondrial L-arginine transport in modulating cardiac stress responses was examined in cardiomyocytes with mitochondrial specific overexpression of CAT-1 (mtCAT1) exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation stress. mtCAT1 cardiomyocytes had significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration and ATP turnover together with significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production and cell death following mitochondrial stress. Conclusion These data provide new insights into the role of L-arginine transport in mitochondrial biology and cardiovascular disease. Augmentation of mitochondrial L-arginine availability may be a novel therapeutic strategy for myocardial disorders involving mitochondrial stress such as heart failure and reperfusion injury.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104643. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104643 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In our previous study, a mechanical shear flow is regarded as protective for endothelial cells (ECs), leading to a series S-nitrosylation of proteins [3]. Investigating the reported mechanisms of NO on EC protection, the NO-mediated S-nitrosylated proteins, such as F1F0-ATPase, reduced the generation of Ca2+ and ROS in mitochondria during ischemia/reperfusion injury [4]. NO was also reported to be essential in the prevention of irreversible oxidative stress and finally provided protection from several diseases including cancer, diabetes, and neuron degeneration [5–7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), two endogenous gaseous molecules in endothelial cells, got increased attention with respect to their protective roles in the cardiovascular system. However, the details of the signaling pathways between H2S and NO in endothelia cells remain unclear. In this study, a treatment with NaHS profoundly increased the expression and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Elevated gaseous NO levels were observed by a novel and specific fluorescent probe, 5-amino-2-(6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid methyl ester (FA-OMe), and quantified by flow cytometry. Further study indicated an increase of upstream regulator for eNOS activation, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and protein kinase B (Akt). By using a biotin switch, the level of NO-mediated protein S-nitrosylation was also enhanced. However, with the addition of the NO donor, NOC-18, the expressions of cystathionine- γ -lyase, cystathionine- β -synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were not changed. The level of H2S was also monitored by a new designed fluorescent probe, 4-nitro-7-thiocyanatobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-SCN) with high specificity. Therefore, NO did not reciprocally increase the expression of H2S-generating enzymes and the H2S level. The present study provides an integrated insight of cellular responses to H2S and NO from protein expression to gaseous molecule generation, which indicates the upstream role of H2S in modulating NO production and protein S-nitrosylation.
    05/2014; 2014(2):480387. DOI:10.1155/2014/480387
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