Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression.

Department of Psychiatry, Clinic ofPsychosomatic Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 5.06). 08/2007; 30(7):873-80.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To study prospectively the relations of insomnia to the development of anxiety disorders and depression in a population-based sample.
Cohort study based on data from 2 general health surveys of the adult population.
Two general health surveys in the adult population in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway, HUNT-1 performed in 1984-6 and HUNT-2 in 1995-7
Participants without significant anxiety and depression in HUNT-1 were categorized according to the presence and absence of insomnia in the 2 surveys (N=25,130).
Anxiety disorders and depression in HUNT-2 were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, education, comorbid depression/anxiety, and history of insomnia. Anxiety disorders in HUNT-2 were significantly associated with the group with insomnia in HUNT-1 only (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), the group with insomnia in HUNT-2 only (OR 3.4; 95% CI, 3.1-3.8), as well as with the group with insomnia in both surveys (OR 4.9; 95% CI, 3.8-6.4). Depression in HUNT-2 was significantly associated with the group with insomnia in HUNT-2 only (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0), but not with the groups with insomnia in HUNT-1 only or with insomnia in both surveys.
Only a state-like association between insomnia and depression was found. In addition to being a state marker, insomnia may be a trait marker for individuals at risk for developing anxiety disorders. Results are consistent with insomnia being a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders.

Download full-text


Available from: Alv Andreas Dahl, Jun 18, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing awareness of the interplay among sleep, circadian rhythms, and psychopathology. Recent findings show that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with late bedtimes. Sleep disruption may exacerbate impairments in executive functioning in individuals with OCD, making these individuals vulnerable to experiencing intrusive thoughts that come from “out of the blue” (autogenous obsessions; AO) and to having difficulty dismissing them. The current study investigated types of intrusive thoughts experienced by individuals with (DB) and without (NDB) delayed bedtimes. Bedtime, and AO (uncued, affectively negative) vs. reactive obsessions (RO; triggered by environment, affectively neutral) were examined in 212 adults. As hypothesized, individuals with DB reported more frequent intrusive thoughts, as well as more AO, than NDB individuals. Additionally, DB participants reported a greater urge to neutralize intrusive thoughts than NDB participants. Future work should test the replicability of these findings and explore circadian disruptions in OCD using biological markers.
    Biological Rhythm Research 01/2015; 46(1). DOI:10.1080/09291016.2014.948741 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that can profoundly impact a person's health and wellbeing. Herbal medicine represents one of the most frequently used complementary and alternative treatments of insomnia. However, the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of this disorder is currently uncertain. In order to ascertain the evidence base for herbal medicine for insomnia, we systematically searched seventeen electronic databases and the reference lists of included studies for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Fourteen RCTs, involving a total of 1602 participants with insomnia, met the inclusion criteria. Four distinct orally administered herbal monopreparations were identified (i.e., valerian, chamomile, kava and wuling). There was no statistically significant difference between any herbal medicine and placebo, or any herbal medicine and active control, for any of the thirteen measures of clinical efficacy. As for safety, a similar or smaller number of adverse events per person were reported with kava, chamomile and wuling when compared with placebo. By contrast, a greater number of events per person were reported with valerian. While there is insufficient evidence to support the use of herbal medicine for insomnia, there is a clear need for further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 12/2014; 24C:1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.12.003 · 9.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the role of health status and social support in the relationship between job-stress and sleep disturbance, both for intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance. Methods 1,946 mid-life adults completed three questionnaires spanning an 8-year time frame. Sleep disturbance was assessed at each time point, and participants were classified as experiencing intermittent, chronic or no sleep disturbance across this 8-year period. Independent variables included a range of job stress measures, social support, physical and mental health, and demographic characteristics. Results After controlling for physical and mental health, perceived lack of job marketability increased risk for intermittent sleep disturbance (OR = 1.33, p = 0.012). No other job stress measures were associated with either intermittent or chronic sleep disturbance after adjusting for years of education, social support and employment status. Poorer mental and physical health status, although significantly increasing odds for intermittent sleep disturbance, represented a significantly greater increase in the odds for chronic sleep disturbance over and above intermittent disturbance (OR = .96, p < 0.001 for both SF-12 mental and physical health). Conclusion This population based cohort study found little evidence that job stress had an independent effect on chronic or intermittent sleep disturbance independent of health, social support and education. Risk profiles for intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance did not differ with regards to job stress, however various demographic and social support factors were distinguishing factors. Health status, both physical and mental, also showed a significantly greater impact on chronic sleep disturbance than intermittent sleep disturbance. Karasek’s model of job strain had little value in predicting sleep disturbance outcomes.
    Sleep Medicine 08/2014; 15(8). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.04.007 · 3.10 Impact Factor