In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies. Reprod Toxicol

U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201, United States.
Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.23). 08/2007; 24(2):199-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.06.004
Source: PubMed


Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10-1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

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Available from: Linda S Birnbaum, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Overall, the variation of ER expression levels in the 2 sexes affects the physiological dimorphism in nuclear morphology and functions (Cao et al. 2014; Rebuli et al. 2014, and the section below). In some cases, this results in a male showing a more feminine phenotype and vice versa, while in other cases the loss of dimorphism is due to a change only in 1 of the 2 sexes (see Richter et al. 2007 and below for further references). Sometimes, the observed outcomes are not completely reproduced by the exposure to estrogens (Rebuli et al. 2014), suggesting that BPA does not act only as estrogen pure agonist on some parameters. "
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    ABSTRACT: Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose–response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health.
    Dose-Response 06/2015; 13(2). DOI:10.1177/1559325815590394 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "A large number of them have demonstrated deleterious effects below the established reference dose. These effects include among others alteration of mammary gland development, behavioral effects, abnormalities in the prostate growth, alterations of sexual maturation, altered immune system function , detrimental effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and so on (vom Saal & Hughes, 2005; Richter et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the most common metabolic disorders, with prevalence rates that are reaching epidemic proportions. Both are complex conditions affecting virtually all ages and with serious health consequences. The underlying cause of the problem is still puzzling, but both genetic and environmental factors including unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, or the exposure to some environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are thought to have a causal influence. In addition, the impact of early environment has recently emerged as an important factor responsible for the increased propensity to develop adult-onset metabolic disease. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development is the most commonly studied factor affecting early programming of obesity and T2DM. In recent years, increasing experimental evidence shows that exposure to EDCs could also account for this phenomenon. In the present review, we will overview the most relevant findings that confirm the critical role of bisphenol-A, one of the most widespread EDCs, in the development of metabolic disorders.
    Dose-Response 06/2015; 13(2). DOI:10.1177/1559325815590395 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "One of these EDCs widely found in the environment is bisphenol A (BPA). Animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to BPA produces prenatal and postnatal adverse effects on multiple tissues, including the brain (Richter et al. 2007). Prenatal BPA exposure affects brain development, sexual differentiation, social and anxiety-like behavior, and learning/memory ( "
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the simultaneous degradation of BPA and cheese whey (CW) in semi-continuous activated sludge reactors was studied. The acclimation process and microbial growth on BPA, CW and BPA + CW were analyzed. In addition, the effect of increasing CW concentration on the BPA degradation by acclimated activated sludge was also studied. In order to reduce the factors involved in the analysis of the simultaneous degradation of BPA and CW, the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on activated sludge not previously exposed to BPA (native activated sludge) was studied. Results demonstrate that BPA concentrations lower than 40 mg l(-1) had a negligible effect on the growth of native activated sludge. In the semi-continuous reactors, the presence of CW increased the acclimation time to 40 mg l(-1) of BPA. Once the capability of degrading BPA was acquired, the removal of BPA was not affected by the presence of CW. Increasing the CW concentration did not affect the removal of BPA by the acclimated activated sludge. Additionally, the CW consumption was not modified by the presence of BPA. Kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients reported in the present work can be useful in developing mathematical models to describe the simultaneous aerobic biodegradation of a biogenic substrate, such as CW, and BPA by activated sludge.
    Biodegradation 03/2015; 26(3). DOI:10.1007/s10532-015-9726-5 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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