In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies

U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201, United States.
Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 08/2007; 24(2):199-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.06.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10-1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

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Available from: Linda S Birnbaum, Jul 22, 2015
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    • "The result indicated that the concentrations differ depending on the areas, mostly were lower than the limit of detection (<LOD 1 μg/L). Even though the concentrations were below LOD, it still gives effects in animals such as genital malformations, sexually dimorphic circuits in the hypothalamus, prostate weight and cancer, onset of estrus cyclicity and earlier puberty, mammary gland organization and cancer, low body weight, protein induction in the uterus, and many others (Richter et al. 2007). Recent results of molecular mechanisms of BPA action have revealed that at a very low concentration of BPA can still stimulate cellular response by a variety of pathways (Welshons et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of agricultural waste materials for the removal bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solution was investigated. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) used mainly in the plastic manufacturing industry. It may be hazardous to humans and animals because of its estrogenic activity. Agricultural wastes are sustainable adsorbents because of their low cost and availability. Hence, this study investigated the removal of BPA from water by adsorption onto treated coir pith, coconut shell and durian peel. The adsorption of BPA from water onto adsorbent was evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The effects of morphology, functional groups, and surface area on adsorption before and after pretreatment with sulfuric acid and reaction were investigated, and it was found that the treated adsorbent were able to remove BPA. Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups had appear in large number in FTIR analysis. The present study indicates that coir pith had removed 72 % of BPA with adsorption capacity of 4.308 mg/g for 24 h, followed by durian peel (70 %, 4.178 mg/g) and coconut shell (69 %, 4.159 mg/g). The results proved that these modified phyto-waste were promising materials as alternative adsorbent for the removal of BPA from aqueous solution.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 03/2015; 226(3). DOI:10.1007/s11270-015-2318-5 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    • "treated alligators were heavier, larger, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were leaner than controls at age 21 weeks. Developmental exposure to estrogenic compounds is often associated with increased body weight (reviewed in (Richter et al., 2007)), although decreased body weight has also been reported. For example, Honma et al. (2002) demonstrated that mice exposed in utero to DES (0.02 or 0.2 μg/kg) or BPA (2 or 20 μg/kg) produced lighter female offspring compared to controls (Honma et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect length of gestation and body mass and size of offspring. However, the dose, timing, and duration of exposure as well as sex and strain of the experimental animals determine the direction and magnitude of these effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a one-time embryonic exposure to either 17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1.4days earlier than vehicle-treated (control) alligators, suggesting that estrogenic chemicals hasten hatching in these animals. We assessed growth rates, growth allometry, and body condition for 21weeks after hatching and found that BPA-treated alligators grew more quickly shortly after hatching but more slowly thereafter compared to control alligators. Conversely, E2-treated alligators grew more slowly shortly after hatching but more quickly thereafter compared to control alligators. As a result of differences in growth rate, BPA-treated alligators were heavier, longer, and fatter than control alligators at age 5weeks but were similar in size and leaner than control alligators at age 21weeks. Biochemical analytes were examined at the end of the 21-week study to assess overall metabolic condition. We found that E2-treated alligators had significantly higher circulating plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides than control alligators while BPA-treated alligators had blood profiles comparable to control alligators. Our results provide important insights into the effects of exogenous estrogens on morphology and metabolism in an oviparous, semi-aquatic reptile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 02/2015; 184. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpb.2015.02.001 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    • "The general consensus is that the estrogenic activity of BPA is caused by the binding of BPA to ERs in mammals (Brotons et al., 1995; Kitamura et al., 2005; Kuiper et al., 1998; Olea et al., 1996; Stroheker et al., 2004), in fish (Gibert et al., 2011), and in frogs (Lutz and Kloas, 1999; Suzuki et al., 2004b). Previous studies have demonstrated that BPA can alter the estrous cyclicity, which interferes with female sexual maturity, and egg production; although BPA was found to be about 10-to 1000-fold less potent than endogenous estrogens (reviewed in Richter et al., 2007). For example, Suffolk ewe lambs exposed to BPA prenatally showed progressive loss of estrous cyclicity (37.4 ± 3.3 ng/mL; Savabieasfahani et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their versatility, robustness, and low production costs, plastics are used in a wide variety of applications. Plasticizers are mixed with polymers to increase flexibility of plastics. However, plasticizers are not covalently bound to plastics, and thus leach from products into the environment. Several studies have reported that two common plasticizers, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, induce adverse health effects in vertebrates; however few studies have addressed their toxicity to non-mammalian species. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of plasticizers in animals, with a focus on aquatic species. In summary, we identified three main chains of events that occur in animals exposed to BPA and phthalates. Firstly, plasticizers affect development by altering both the thyroid hormone and growth hormone axes. Secondly, these chemicals interfere with reproduction by decreasing cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Lastly, exposure to plasticizers leads to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, the increase of fatty acid oxidation, and the reduction in the ability to cope with the augmented oxidative stress leading to reproductive organ malformations, reproductive defects, and decreased fertility.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 11/2014; 98. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.11.003 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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