Article

In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies

U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201, United States.
Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 08/2007; 24(2):199-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.06.004
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ABSTRACT Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10-1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

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    • "The result indicated that the concentrations differ depending on the areas, mostly were lower than the limit of detection (<LOD 1 μg/L). Even though the concentrations were below LOD, it still gives effects in animals such as genital malformations, sexually dimorphic circuits in the hypothalamus, prostate weight and cancer, onset of estrus cyclicity and earlier puberty, mammary gland organization and cancer, low body weight, protein induction in the uterus, and many others (Richter et al. 2007). Recent results of molecular mechanisms of BPA action have revealed that at a very low concentration of BPA can still stimulate cellular response by a variety of pathways (Welshons et al. 2006). "
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    • "treated alligators were heavier, larger, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were leaner than controls at age 21 weeks. Developmental exposure to estrogenic compounds is often associated with increased body weight (reviewed in (Richter et al., 2007)), although decreased body weight has also been reported. For example, Honma et al. (2002) demonstrated that mice exposed in utero to DES (0.02 or 0.2 μg/kg) or BPA (2 or 20 μg/kg) produced lighter female offspring compared to controls (Honma et al., 2002). "
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    • "The general consensus is that the estrogenic activity of BPA is caused by the binding of BPA to ERs in mammals (Brotons et al., 1995; Kitamura et al., 2005; Kuiper et al., 1998; Olea et al., 1996; Stroheker et al., 2004), in fish (Gibert et al., 2011), and in frogs (Lutz and Kloas, 1999; Suzuki et al., 2004b). Previous studies have demonstrated that BPA can alter the estrous cyclicity, which interferes with female sexual maturity, and egg production; although BPA was found to be about 10-to 1000-fold less potent than endogenous estrogens (reviewed in Richter et al., 2007). For example, Suffolk ewe lambs exposed to BPA prenatally showed progressive loss of estrous cyclicity (37.4 ± 3.3 ng/mL; Savabieasfahani et al., 2006). "
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