Article

Basal shuttle of NF-kappaB/I kappaB alpha in resting T lymphocytes regulates HIV-1 LTR dependent expression.

AIDS Immunopathology Unit, National Center of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.
Retrovirology (Impact Factor: 4.77). 02/2007; 4:56. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-4-56
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In HIV-infected T lymphocytes, NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors are major elements involved in the activation of LTR-dependent transcription from latency. Most NF-kappaB heterodimer p65/p50 is sequestered as an inactive form in the cytoplasm of resting T lymphocytes via its interaction with I kappaB inhibitors. In these cells, both absolute HIV latency and low level ongoing HIV replication have been described. These situations could be related to differences in the balance between NF-kappaB and I kappaB alpha ratio. Actually, control of I kappaB alpha by cellular factors such as Murr-1 plays a critical role in maintaining HIV latency in unstimulated T lymphocytes. Formerly, our group demonstrated the presence of nuclear I kappaB alpha in T cells after PMA activation. Now we attempt to determine the dynamics of NF-kappaB/I kappaB alpha nucleocytosolic transport in absence of activation as a mechanism to explain both the maintenance of latency and the existence of low level ongoing HIV replication in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We show that the inhibition of the nuclear export by leptomycin B in resting CD4+ T cells resulted in nuclear accumulation of both I kappaB alpha and p65/RelA, as well as formation of NF-kappaB/I kappaB alpha complexes. This proves the existence of a rapid shuttling of I kappaB alpha between nucleus and cytosol even in absence of cellular activation. The nuclear accumulation of I kappaB alpha in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes results in inhibition of HIV-LTR dependent transcription as well as restrains HIV replication in CD4+ T lymphocytes. On the other hand, basal NF-kappaB activity detected in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes was related to low level HIV replication in these cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
90 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular latency allows HIV-1 to persist in resting memory CD4+ T-cells as transcriptionally silent provirus integrated into host chromosomal DNA. Multiple transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for HIV-1 latency have been described in the context of progressive epigenetic silencing and maintenance. However, our understanding of the determinants critical for the establishment of latency in newly infected cells is limited. In this study, we used a recently described, doubly fluorescent HIV-1 latency model to dissect the role of proviral integration sites and cellular activation state on direct non-productive infections at the single cell level. Proviral integration site mapping of infected Jurkat T-cells revealed that productively and non-productively infected cells are indistinguishable in terms of genomic landmarks, surrounding epigenetic landscapes, and proviral orientation relative to host genes. However, direct non-productive infections were inversely correlated with both cellular activation state and NFkappaB activity. Furthermore, modulating NFkappaB with either small molecules or by conditional overexpression of NFkappaB subunits was sufficient to alter the propensity of HIV-1 to directly enter a non-productive latent state in newly infected cells. Importantly, this modulatory effect was limited to a short time window post-infection. Taken together, our data suggest that cellular activation state and NFkappaB activity during the time of infection, but not the site of proviral integration, are important regulators of direct HIV-1 non-productive infections.
    Retrovirology 02/2014; 11(1):17. · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+) T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+) T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2013; 9(12):e1003799. · 8.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of eradication of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) from infected patients has gained much attention in the last few years. While combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (c-ART) has been extremely effective in suppressing viral replication, it is not curative. This is due to the presence of a reservoir of latent HIV infected cells, which persist in the presence of c-ART. Recently, pharmaceutical approaches have focused on the development of molecules able to induce HIV-1 replication from latently infected cells in order to render them susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and host immune responses. Alternative pathways and transcription complexes function to regulate the activity of the HIV promoter and might serve as molecular targets for compounds to activate latent HIV. A combined therapy coupling various depressors and activators will likely be the most effective in promoting HIV replication while avoiding pleiotropic effects at the cellular level. Moreover, in light of differences among HIV subtypes and variability in integration sites, the combination of multiple agents targeting multiple pathways will increase likelihood of therapeutic effectiveness and prevent mutational escape. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms that can be targeted to induce HIV activation focusing on potential combinatorial approaches.
    Viruses 11/2014; 6(11):4581-4608. · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
60 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014