Nonfunctional overreaching during off-season training for skill position players in collegiate American football
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the performance and hormonal responses to a 15-week off-season training program for American football. Nine skill position players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football team participated as subjects in this study. Following 4 weeks of weight training (phase I), subjects performed weight training concurrently with high-volume conditioning drills (phase II). Phase III consisted of 15 spring football practice sessions executed over a 30-day period. Performance and hormonal changes were assessed prior to phase I, and following phases I, II, and III. Maximal strength was significantly increased (p < 0.05) for all strength tests during phase I. Squat and power clean values decreased following phase II (p < 0.05), with all values returning to baseline upon completion of phase III. Sprinting speed significantly worsened during phase I (p < 0.05), but then returned to baseline during phase III. Vertical jump and agility improved during phase I (p < 0.05), with vertical jump remaining unchanged for the duration of the study and agility returning to baseline following phase II. Testosterone levels decreased during phase II (p < 0.05) prior to returning to baseline levels during phase III. Cortisol and the testosterone/cortisol ratio remained unchanged during the course of the investigation. Even though overtraining did not occur in the current investigation, a significant maladaptation in performance did occur subsequent to phase II. For this particular athletic population, a strength and conditioning program utilizing a reduced training volume-load may prove more effective for improving performance in the future.
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ABSTRACT: The first purpose of this research was to establish the reliability of numerous measures obtained from a single and short duration repeated countermovement jump (CMJ) utilising a portable forceplate (Experimental Studies 1 and 2). Secondly, the response of reliable CMJ variables and T, C and T:C to a single elite level ARF match was assessed to identify the pattern of response and highlight those measures with the greatest potential for usefulness as monitoring tools across longer periods (Experimental Study 3). Finally, those variables identified as most valuable in Experimental Study 3 in addition to T, C and T:C; were measured throughout a season of elite ARF competition in order to examine the manner of their response and assess the magnitude of change in these variables in relation to performance and training and competition loads (Experimental Study 4).
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of basic fencing and velocity training on reaction time in the 9-12 year-old beginners of fencing. The 45 beginners (17 female, 28 male, total age means: 11.04±0.93years, height means: 142,76 ±10.71 cm, weight means: 39.64 ±10.13 kg) who applied to the Mersin Büyüksehir Municipality Fencing Sports Club (MBMFSC) volunteered to participate in this study. The beginners were randomly divided into three groups; Basic Fencing Group (BFG); Velocity Group (VG); and Control Group (CG). Each group was consisted of 15 children. During the study, BFG participated in a 8-week basic fencing training program (3 days per week, 50 minutes per session). Under the same conditions, velocity training program was performed by VG. The CG did not participate in any of the activities regularly. At the baseline and at the end of 8 week-programs, the lower extremity reaction time of all groups was measured with the Newtest Automatic Performance Analyzer. Reaction time of the upper extremity in all groups was also recorded with the apparatus of upper extremity reaction time measurement. All analyses were made using the SPSS statistical package, version 13.0. ANOVA test was used for the comparison of three groups (BFG, VG, CG). Paired-samples t-test was used the comparison of baseline and at the end of 8 week for each group. The level of significance was accepted as p<.05 and the reliability level as %95. At the baseline and at the end of 8 week-program, the upper extremity reaction time of BFG showed the significant difference (p=0.002). At the baseline and the end of that 8 week-program, the upper and the lower extremity reaction times of VG showed the significant difference (the upper p=0.011, the lower p=0.022). At the end of 8 week-program, there was significant differences between groups (p=0.03). In conclusion, the 9-12 year-old beginners of fencing are performed not only basic fencing training program but also velocity training program for their reaction times. As a result of this, we emphasize multi-model program which is include both basic fencing training program and velocity training program contribute to improve to the reaction time in the 9-12 year-old beginners of fencing.