Association between Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002

Department of Preventive Medicine and Health Promotion Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 08/2007; 115(8):1204-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.10184
Source: PubMed


There is now increasing evidence that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can contribute to the development of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.
The objective of this study was to examine associations of serum concentrations of POPs with self-reported history of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Cross-sectional associations of serum POPs concentrations with the prevalence of self-reported CVD were investigated in 889 adults >or= 40 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. We selected 21 POPs [3 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 3 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 5 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 nondioxin-like PCBs, and 4 organochlorine (OC) pesticides] because they were detectable in >or= 60% of participants.
Dioxin-like PCBs, nondioxin-like PCBs, and OC pesticides were positively associated with the prevalence of CVD only among females. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of serum concentration, the odds ratios for CVD across increasing quartiles were 0.9, 2.0, and 5.0 for dioxin-like PCBs (p for trend < 0.01), 1.2, 1.2, and 3.8 for nondioxin-like PCBs (p for trend < 0.01), and 1.9, 1.7, and 4.0 for OC pesticides (p for trend = 0.03). PCDDs showed positive trends with the prevalence of CVD in both males and females; adjusted odds ratios were 1.4, 1.7, and 1.9 (p for trend = 0.07, males and females combined).
Our findings need to be carefully interpreted because of the cross-sectional design and use of self-reported CVD. Prospective studies are needed to clarify these associations.

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    • "Janesick and Blumberg (2011) recently reported that environmental chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may play an important role in modulating the balance between energy intake and expenditure. Serum levels of POPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and organochlorine pesticides may be associated with body mass index, elevated triglyceride levels, abdominal obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (Airaksinen et al. 2011; Ha et al. 2007; Lee et al. 2012; Uemura et al. 2009). In animal studies, POPs—including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3,3´,4,4´-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77), 3,3´,4,4´,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153), and POP mixtures in crude salmon oil—have been associated with body weight gain, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, and atherosclerosis (Arsenescu et al. 2008; Ruzzin et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed normal diet (ND)- or high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, and 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks old. Body weight, liver weight, biochemical blood tests, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue were examined. In HFD-fed mice, high- (700 μg/kg) and medium-dose (35 μg/kg) HBCD exposure markedly increased body and liver weight compared with vehicle exposure. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD also increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the liver and decreased those of glucose transporter 4 in adipose tissue compared with vehicle in HFD-fed mice. Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2014; 122(3). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307421 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    • "Elevated concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and low concentrations of HDL cholesterol are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease [1,32]. There is supportive evidence from both human [25,28,33] and animal [3,34,35] studies that exposure to POPs increases risk of cardiovascular disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anniston, Alabama is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis. We observed that elevated serum concentrations of lipids were associated with elevated serum concentrations of SigmaPCBs and summed pesticides in analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercising status. The strongest associations were seen for PCB congeners with three or four ortho, and at least eight substituted chlorines. Mono-ortho substituted congeners 74 and 156, di-ortho congeners 172 and 194, and tri- and tetra-ortho congeners 199, 196-203, 206 and 209 each were significantly associated with total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Serum concentrations of HCB and chlordane also had strong associations with lipid components. Increased concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides are associated with elevations in total serum lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but the patterns are different for different groups of PCBs and different pesticides. These observations show selective effects of different organochlorines on serum concentrations of different groups of lipids. This elevation in concentrations of serum lipids may be the basis for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease found in persons with elevated exposures to PCBs and chlorinated pesticides.
    Environmental Health 12/2013; 12(1):108. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-12-108 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    • "In experimental studies, pretreatment of PCBs or some OCPs like DDT increased genotoxicity of carcinogens like benzopyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, and N-nitrosodiethylamine, which are important components of cigarette smoke (6, 7). In fact, the chronic exposure to low dose POPs has recently been linked to various common diseases in general population (8-12). Also, we recently reported that an interaction between obesity and POPs on mortality in elderly (13). "
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    ABSTRACT: There are substantial variations of relative risks (RR) in smoking-related mortality by country and time. We hypothesized the RRs in smoking-related mortality might differ depending on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking with total mortality in 610 elderly (aged ≥ 70 yr) (702 elderly for organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) after stratification by serum concentration of POPs, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 followed through 2006. Summary measures of POPs subclasses showed significant or marginally significant interaction with cigarette smoking on the risk of total mortality. P values for interaction were 0.069 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 0.008 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 0.024 for OCPs. The effect of smoking on total mortality showed different patterns according to the serum concentration of some POPs. Former or current smokers had 1.4 to 2.9 times higher mortality rates compared with never smokers among participants with higher serum concentrations of POPs (2nd or 3rd tertiles). However, when the level of PCBs or OCPs were low (1st tertile), there were little positive associations between smoking and mortality. Our study suggests that the background exposure to several POPs may be related to variability in smoking-related total mortality.
    Journal of Korean medical science 08/2013; 28(8):1122-8. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.8.1122 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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