Regulatory effect of nerve growth factor on release of substance P in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of rat.
ABSTRACT To investigate the regulatory effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on basal and capsaicin-induced release of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in primary cultured embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.
DRGs were dissected from 15-day-old embryonic Wistar rats. DRG neurons were dissociated and cultured, and then exposed to different concentrations of NGF (10 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, or 100 ng/mL) for 72 h. The neurons cultured in media without NGF served as control. RT-PCR were used for detecting the mRNAs of SP and vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) in the DRG neurons. The SP basal and capsaicin (100 nmol/L)-induced release in the culture were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).
SP mRNA and VR1 mRNA expression increased in primary cultured DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner of NGF. Both basal release and capsaicin-evoked release of SP increased in NGF-treated DRG neurons compared with in control group. The capsaicin-evoked release of SP also increased in a dose-dependent manner of NGF.
NGF may promote both basal release and capsaicin-evoked release of SP. NGF might increase the sensitivity of nociceptors by increasing the SP mRNA or VR1 mRNA.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic cough is a common symptom that can be a daunting challenge for clinicians since treatment of the underlying cause does not always provide adequate relief, an obvious cause can remain elusive, and current antitussives have fairly poor efficacy and undesirable side-effects. Patients with chronic cough typically describe a range of sensory symptoms suggestive of upper-airway and laryngeal neural dysfunction. Additionally, patients often report cough triggered by low-level physical and chemical stimuli, which is suggestive of cough-reflex hyperresponsiveness. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying peripheral and central augmentation of the afferent cough pathways have been identified, and compelling evidence exists for a neuropathy of vagal sensory nerves after upper-respiratory viral infections or exposure to allergic and non-allergic irritants. In this Personal View, we argue that chronic cough is a neuropathic disorder that arises from neural damage caused by a range of inflammatory, infective, and allergic factors. In support of this idea, we discuss evidence of successful treatment of chronic cough with agents used for treatment of neuropathic pain, such as gabapentin and amitriptyline. Regarding cough as a neuropathic disorder could lead to new, more effective antitussives.The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 07/2013; 1(5):414-22.
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ABSTRACT: Cough reflex hypersensitization is a key feature in patients with troublesome cough. The clinical consequence of this hypersensitive state is typified by bouts of coughing often triggered by low threshold stimuli encountered by the patient during normal daily activities including exposure to aerosols, scents and odours, a change in air temperature and when talking or laughing. These features are often perceived by cough patients to be the most disruptive aspect of their condition and undoubtedly contribute to impaired quality of life. Patients with troublesome cough may describe a range of additional symptoms and sensations including an 'urge to cough' or the feeling of an 'itch' at the back of the throat, or a choking sensation and occasionally chest pain or breathlessness. It is uncertain if these features arise due to the processes responsible for cough reflex sensitization or as a direct consequence of the underlying cough aetiology. In an attempt to understand the clinical features of a sensitized cough reflex, the spectrum of symptoms typically described by cough patients will be reviewed and possible underlying mechanisms considered. Since an intact cough reflex is crucial to airway protection, anti-tussive treatment that attenuates the hypersensitive cough state rather than abolishing the cough reflex completely would be preferable. Identifying such agents remains a clinical, scientific and pharmacological challenge.Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 12/2008; 22(2):59-64. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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