Regulatory effect of nerve growth factor on release of substance P in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of rat.
ABSTRACT To investigate the regulatory effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on basal and capsaicin-induced release of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in primary cultured embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.
DRGs were dissected from 15-day-old embryonic Wistar rats. DRG neurons were dissociated and cultured, and then exposed to different concentrations of NGF (10 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, or 100 ng/mL) for 72 h. The neurons cultured in media without NGF served as control. RT-PCR were used for detecting the mRNAs of SP and vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) in the DRG neurons. The SP basal and capsaicin (100 nmol/L)-induced release in the culture were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).
SP mRNA and VR1 mRNA expression increased in primary cultured DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner of NGF. Both basal release and capsaicin-evoked release of SP increased in NGF-treated DRG neurons compared with in control group. The capsaicin-evoked release of SP also increased in a dose-dependent manner of NGF.
NGF may promote both basal release and capsaicin-evoked release of SP. NGF might increase the sensitivity of nociceptors by increasing the SP mRNA or VR1 mRNA.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether activation and/or inhibition of α-adrenoreceptors influences substance P (SP) release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) primary sensory neurons in vitro. DRGs were dissected from 15-day embryonic Wistar rats. DRG neurons were dissociated and cultured for 2 d and then exposed to noradrenaline (NA) alone (1×10(-4) mol/L), or along with the α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin (1×10(-6) mol/L) or the α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine (1×10(-5) mol/L) for 4 d. Then, RT-PCR was used to determine the levels of preprotachykinin (PPT) mRNA encoding for SP and Western blot to assess the protein levels of SP. Basal and capsaicin (CAP)-evoked SP release were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CAP-evoked SP release was sensitized by NA and this effect was inhibited by pre-incubation with prazosin but not with yohimbine. The levels of PPT mRNA, SP peptide, and basal SP release did not change significantly in any of the experimental conditions. NA may significantly increase CAP-evoked SP release through activation of α-adrenoreceptors, which may contribute to noradrenergic pain modulation.Neuroscience Bulletin 10/2011; 27(5):300-6. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic pain. Impaired growth hormone responses and reduced serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are common in FM. The aim was to examine changes in serum IGF-1, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuropeptides, and cytokines during aerobic exercise in FM patients. METHODS: In total, 49 patients (median age, 52 years) with FM were included in the study. They were randomized to either the moderate- to high-intensity Nordic Walking (NW) program (n = 26) or the supervised low-intensity walking (LIW) program (n = 23). Patients participated in blood tests before and after 15 weeks of aerobic exercise. Changes in serum levels of free IGF-1, pain rating on a 0- to 100-mm scale, pain threshold, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were examined. CSF, neuropeptides, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Nonparametric tests were used for group comparisons and correlation analyses. RESULTS: Serum free IGF-1 levels did not change during 15 weeks of exercise between the two groups, although the 6MWT significantly improved in the NW group (p = 0.033) when compared with LIW. Pain did not significantly change in any of the groups, but tended to decrease (p = 0.052) over time in the total group. A tendency toward a correlation was noted between baseline IGF-1 and a decrease of pain in response to exercise (r = 0.278; p = 0.059). When adjusted for age, this tendency disappeared. The change in serum free IGF-1 correlated positively with an alteration in CSF substance P (SP) levels (rs = 0.495; p = 0.072), neuropeptide Y (NPY) (rs = 0.802; p = 0.001), and pain threshold (rs = 0.276; p = 0.058). Differing CSF SP levels correlated positively to a change in pain threshold (rs = 0.600; p = 0.023), whereas the shift in CSF MMP-3 inversely correlated with an altered pain threshold (rs = -0.569; p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The baseline level of serum free IGF-1 did not change during high or low intensity of aerobic exercise. Changes in IGF-1 correlated positively with a variation in CSF SP, NPY, and pain threshold. These data indicate a beneficial role of IGF-1 during exercise in FM.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00643006.Arthritis research & therapy 07/2012; 14(4):R162. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic cough is a common symptom that can be a daunting challenge for clinicians since treatment of the underlying cause does not always provide adequate relief, an obvious cause can remain elusive, and current antitussives have fairly poor efficacy and undesirable side-effects. Patients with chronic cough typically describe a range of sensory symptoms suggestive of upper-airway and laryngeal neural dysfunction. Additionally, patients often report cough triggered by low-level physical and chemical stimuli, which is suggestive of cough-reflex hyperresponsiveness. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying peripheral and central augmentation of the afferent cough pathways have been identified, and compelling evidence exists for a neuropathy of vagal sensory nerves after upper-respiratory viral infections or exposure to allergic and non-allergic irritants. In this Personal View, we argue that chronic cough is a neuropathic disorder that arises from neural damage caused by a range of inflammatory, infective, and allergic factors. In support of this idea, we discuss evidence of successful treatment of chronic cough with agents used for treatment of neuropathic pain, such as gabapentin and amitriptyline. Regarding cough as a neuropathic disorder could lead to new, more effective antitussives.The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 07/2013; 1(5):414-22.